Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020

Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gum tissue") is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis.

While some cases of gingivitis never progress to periodontitis, data indicate that periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis.

Gingivitis is reversible with good oral hygiene. However, in the absence of treatment, or if not controlled, gingivitis can progress toperiodontitis, where the inflammation results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption, which can ultimately lead to tooth loss.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: health line gum disease (gingivitis) mayo clinic gingivitis what is gingivitis? Signs and symptoms medline plus gingivitis web md gingivitis and periodontal disease (gum disease) live science gingivitis & periodontitis: symptoms & treatment of gum disease nhs uk gum disease - symptoms new york times gingivitis merck manuals (professional version) gingivitis canoe gingivitis health direct gingivitis and halitosis cleveland clinic gingivitis bupa gum disease news medical what is gingivitis? everyday health recognizing and treating gingivitis kids health gingivitis


Advanced information: medscape gingivitis medicine net gum disease (gingivitis) medical news today what is gingivitis? What causes gingivitis? emedicine health gingivitis dermnet nz gingivitis and periodontitis

American society for microbiology. "investigators chart microbial ecology of gingivitis, periodontitis." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 12 august 2016. . medical xpress gum disease genes identified



Shetty n, shankarapillai r, mathur lk, manohar b, mathur a, jain m. Gingival crevicular blood: as a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:472-7. Available from: identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid by young-jin choi et al., proteome science20119:42 doi: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-42 d. A. Spratt, m. Daglia, a. Papetti, et al., “evaluation of plant and fungal extracts for their potential antigingivitis and anticaries activity,” journal of biomedicine and biotechnology, vol. 2012, article id 510198, 12 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/510198

Shah r, mehta ds. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 30];20:279-85. Available from:

Nilima s, vandana k l. Melanin: a scavenger in gingival inflammation. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 sep 30];22:38-43. Available from:

Kaur a, gupta n, baweja dk, simratvir m. An epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and risk assessment of gingivitis in 5-, 12- and 15-year-old children of rural and urban area of panchkula (haryana). Indian j dent res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 sep 30];25:294-9. Available from:

Nadkerny pv, ravishankar pl, pramod v, agarwal la, bhandari s. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of probiotic and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on clinical inflammatory parameters of gingivitis: a randomized controlled clinical study. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 sep 30];19:633-9. Available from:

Deshmukh j, vandana k l, chandrashekar k t, savitha b. Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:74. Available from:

Sarah s m, tamilselvan s, kamatchiammal s, suresh r. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:114. Available from: davis ij, wallis c, deusch o, colyer a, milella l, et al. (2013) a cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Plos one 8(12): e83158. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083158

Pradeep ar, ramchandraprasad m v, bajaj p, rao ns, agarwal e. Protein carbonyl: an oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects. Contemp clin dent [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 sep 30];4:27-31. Available from:


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