Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gum tissue") is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis.
While some cases of gingivitis never progress to periodontitis, data indicate that periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis.
Gingivitis is reversible with good oral hygiene. However, in the absence of treatment, or if not controlled, gingivitis can progress toperiodontitis, where the inflammation results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption, which can ultimately lead to tooth loss.
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Shetty n, shankarapillai r, mathur lk, manohar b, mathur a, jain m. Gingival crevicular blood: as a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:472-7. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2013/17/4/472/118319
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/510198/ d. A. Spratt, m. Daglia, a. Papetti, et al., “evaluation of plant and fungal extracts for their potential antigingivitis and anticaries activity,” journal of biomedicine and biotechnology, vol. 2012, article id 510198, 12 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/510198
Shah r, mehta ds. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 30];20:279-85. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2016/20/3/279/179896
Kaur a, gupta n, baweja dk, simratvir m. An epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and risk assessment of gingivitis in 5-, 12- and 15-year-old children of rural and urban area of panchkula (haryana). Indian j dent res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 sep 30];25:294-9. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2014/25/3/294/138310
Nadkerny pv, ravishankar pl, pramod v, agarwal la, bhandari s. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of probiotic and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on clinical inflammatory parameters of gingivitis: a randomized controlled clinical study. J indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 sep 30];19:633-9. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2015/19/6/633/168491
Deshmukh j, vandana k l, chandrashekar k t, savitha b. Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:74. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2006/17/2/74/29887
Sarah s m, tamilselvan s, kamatchiammal s, suresh r. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 sep 30];17:114. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2006/17/3/114/29879