gestational-diabetes
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Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes also known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels during pregnancy (especially during their third trimester). Gestational diabetes is caused by improper insulin responses. This is likely due to pregnancy-related factors such as the presence of human placental lactogen that interferes with susceptible insulin receptors. This in turn causes inappropriately elevated blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucose in blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3–10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied. Typically gestational diabetes will disappear after the baby is born.

As with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy in general, babies born to mothers with untreated gestational diabetes are typically at increased risk of problems such as being large for gestational age (which may lead to delivery complications), low blood sugar, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also cause seizures or stillbirth. Gestational diabetes is a treatable condition and women who have adequate control of glucose levels can effectively decrease these risks. The food plan is often the first recommended target for strategic management of GDM.

Women with unmanaged gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (or, very rarely, latent autoimmune diabetes or Type 1) after pregnancy, as well as having a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia and Caesarean section; their offspring are prone to developing childhood obesity, with type 2 diabetes later in life. Most women are able to manage their blood glucose levels with a modified diet and the introduction of moderate exercise, but some require antidiabetic drugs, including insulin.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html american diabetes association what is gestational diabetes?

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20014854 gestational diabetes definition

http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/gestational-diabetes-guide/gestational_diabetes gestational diabetes

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gestational-diabetes/pages/introduction.aspx gestational diabetes

http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/gestational-diabetes/ american pregnancy association gestational diabetes

https://www.cedars-sinai.edu/patients/health-conditions/gestational-diabetes.aspx cedar sinai gestational diabetes

http://www.everydayhealth.com/gestational-diabetes/guide/ every day health gestational diabetes

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/diabetes-gestational better health gestational diabetes

http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/d/diabetes-in-pregnancy gestational diabetes (diabetes in pregnancy)

http://www.livescience.com/34728-gestational-diabetes-symptoms-complications.html live science gestational diabetes

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_diabetes_basics/hic_gestational_diabetes clevland clinic gestational diabetes

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes.html family doctor.org gestational diabetes

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/gestational-diabetes/overview.html

http://www.healthline.com/health/gestational-diabetes-diet health line gestational diabetes

http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/gestational-diabetes/gestational-diabetes endocrine web gestational diabetes

https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/d/diabetes,-gestational/treating-gestational-diabetes-.html health service executive gestational diabetes

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw197466 health link bc gestational diabetes

 

Advanced information:

http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diabetes/gestational-diabetes/pages/index.aspx national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases what is gestational diabetes?

https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/managing-gestational-diabetes diabets australia managing gestational diabetes

http://www.medicinenet.com/gestational_diabetes/article.htm medicine net.com gestational diabetes

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-beyond-the-basics patient information: gestational diabetes mellitus (beyond the basics)

http://patient.info/doctor/gestational-diabetes patient gestational diabetes

https://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/nutiritionandphysicalactivity/documents/mo-nupa-myplateforgestationaldiabetes.pdf california myplate for gestational diabetes

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview medscape gestational diabetes

http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/august/gestational-diabetes-mellitus/ gestational diabetes mellitus negotiating the confusion volume 42, no.8, august 2013 pages 528-531

https://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcg/documents/g-gdm.pdf queensland clinical guidelines maternity and neonatal clinical guideline gestational diabetes mellitus

https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/screening-diagnosis-management-of-gestational-diabetes-in-nz-clinical-practive-guideline-dec14-v2.pdf screening, diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes in new zealand a clinical practice guideline

http://sogc.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/121e-cpg-november2002.pdf sogc clinical practice guidelines no. 121, november 2002 screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

https://www.diabetesqld.org.au/media/33447/gestational_diabetes_booklet.pdf national diabetes service scheme gestational diabetes caring for yourself and your baby

http://www.diabetologia-journal.org/files/meek.pdf diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: falling through the net by claire l. Meek et al., diabetologia doi 10.1007/s00125-015-3647-z

 

Research:

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=203189 study of obstetric and fetal outcome of twin pregnancy in a tertiary care centre by gurpreet kaur nandmer international journal of reproduction, contraception, obstetrics and gynecology nandmer gk et al. Int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2015 dec;4(6):1789-1792 www.ijrcog.org doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20150952

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/381231/ journal of diabetes research
volume 2014 (2014), article id 381231, 13 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/381231 review article:effect of metformin intervention during pregnancy on the gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by zhihong zhuo et al.,

http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-564 diabetes in sub saharan africa 1999-2011: epidemiology and public health implications. A systematic review by victoria hall et al., bmc public healthbmc series – open, inclusive and trusted201111:564 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-564

http://rcm.mums.ac.ir/pdf_4341_2042b0f81f2130f6684d7b9555869376.html clinical significance of dvm and its prevalence in pregestational diabetes cases versus normal pregnancies by farideh akhlaghi(md), mahnaz akhondzadeh (md) rev clin med. 2015;2(3):135-137.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0102-311x2009001500002 cad. Saúde pública vol.25 supl.3 rio de janeiro 2009 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2009001500002 review:non classical risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the literature by maria alice souza de oliveira dode; iná s. Dos santos

http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0212-16112013000600007&lng=en&tlng=en nutr. Hosp. Vol.28 no.6 madrid nov.-dec. 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.6.6892 revisión:systematic review; nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus by helaine thomaz de lima et al

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-8-53 cigarette smoking and risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies by eliana m wendland et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirthbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20088:53 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-53

Singh ak, singh r. Metformin in gestational diabetes: an emerging contender. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 may 19];19:236-44. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2015/19/2/236/149317

Kalra p, anakal m. Peripartum management of diabetes. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 may 19];17, suppl s1:72-6. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/7/72/119510

soliman a, desanctis v, yassin m, elalaily r, eldarsy ne. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 may 19];18:274-82. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2014/18/3/274/131130

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-10-47 lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis by eugene oteng-ntim et al., bmc medicine201210:47 doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-47

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-9-57 strategies for recruiting hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus by lisa chasan-taber et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirthbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20099:57 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-57

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-12-23 gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes - a systematic review of the world health organization (who) and the international association of diabetes in pregnancy study groups (iadpsg) diagnostic criteria by eliana m wendland et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirthbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201212:23 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-23

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/suppl_1/s103 gestational diabetes mellitus by american diabetes association diabetes care 2003 jan; 26(suppl 1): s103-s105. Http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.2007.s103

http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.h6898 pre-pregnancy potato consumption and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study bmj 2016; 352 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h6898

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/living-with-gestational-diabetes canadian diabetes association

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3bcu08av_q gestational diabetes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xq9ey1pxao8 understanding gestational diabetes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-8de9luvjq diabetes during pregnancy: what is gestational diabetes?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jo3nkunkmwe pregnancy and childbirth: controlling gestational diabetes

http://www.babycentre.co.uk/v25008621/what-is-gestational-diabetes-video what is gestational diabetes? (video)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sypf1fowca8 gestational diabetes symptoms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijg3hifx-6q gestational diabetes; dr. Anita mohan, fortis healthcare india

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l30tnxsv2v0 gestational diabetes

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/gestational-diabetes-on-the-rise/articleshow/22329940.cms gestational diabetes on the rise zeenia f baria | tnn | sep 5, 2013, 02.10 pm ist

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2015/02/26/dietary-intervention-needed-for-women-who-have-had-gestational-diabetes-study.html dietary intervention needed after gestational diabetes, study suggests by melinda carstensen

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