german-measlesrubella
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German Measles/Rubella

German Measles/Rubella

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
German Measles/Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are sick. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is not as bright as that of measles and is sometimes itchy. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur. In adults joint pain is common. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, andinflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy may result in a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) or miscarriage. Symptoms of CRS include problems with the eyes such as cataracts, ears such as deafness, heart, and brain. Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy.

Rubella is usually spread through the air via coughs of people who are infected. People are infectious during the week before and after the appearance of the rash. Babies with CRS may spread the virus for more than a year. Only humans are infected. Insects do not spread the disease. Once recovered, people are immune to future infections. Testing is available that can verify immunity. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine. Testing the blood for antibodies may also be useful.

Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective. Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine. With a population vaccination rate of less than 80%, however, more women might make it to childbearing age without developing immunity and issues could increase. Once infected there is no specific treatment.

Rubella is a common infection in many areas of the world. Each year about 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome occur. Rates of disease have decreased in many areas as a result of vaccination. There are ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally. In April 2015 the World Health Organization declared the Americas free of rubella transmission. The name "rubella" is from Latin and means little red. It was first described as a separate disease by German physicians in 1814 resulting in the name German measles.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

 

 

Basic information:

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/german-measles.html kids health about rubella

http://www.healthline.com/health/rubella health line german measles (rubella)

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/infections/a5549/german-measles-rubella/ net doctor german measles (rubella)

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/rubella/index.html cdc rubella (german measles) vaccination

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/pages/german-measles-(rubella).aspx healthy chidren german measles (rubella)

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/rubella/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk rubella

http://www.webmd.com/children/tc/rubella-german-measles-topic-overview#1 web md rubella (german measles) - topic overview

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rubella/basics/definition/con-20020067 mayo clinic german measles (rubella)

http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/rubella/ dermnet nz german measles (rubella)

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/urology/rubella_german_measles_85,p00646/ john hopkins medicine medical library german measles (rubella)

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-rubella.aspx news medical what is rubella?

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/hw181833 health link bc german measles (rubella)

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/rubella canoe german measles (rubella)

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-german-measles-1958759 very well what is german measles?

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/rubella university of maryland medical center rubella

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/rubella better health rubella

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/164504.php medical news today rubella (german measles): symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

http://www.medicinenet.com/german_measles/article.htm medicine net rubella (german measles)

http://patient.info/in/health/rubella-german-measles-leaflet patient rubella (german measles)

http://www.who.int/biologicals/vaccines/rubella/en/ who rubella (german measles)

https://medlineplus.gov/rubella.html medline plus rubella

http://www.histopathology-india.net/german_measles.htm histopathology pathology of german measles (rubella)

http://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/g/german-measles/ health service executive german measles (rubella)

http://virology-online.com/viruses/rubella5.htm virology online laboratory diagnosis of rubella infections

 

Research:

gupta sn, gupta n, neki ns. german measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of northern himachal pradesh, india. ann trop med public health [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 jan 2];5:219-24. available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2012/5/3/219/98623

gupta sn, gupta n, gupta s. concurrent multiple outbreaks of varicella, rubeola, german measles outbreak in unvaccinated children of co-educational mount carmel senior secondary school, thakurdwara palampur of northern himachal, india. j family med prim care [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 26];4:117-23. available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2015/4/1/117/152267

 

Related topics:

https://www.askdrshah.com/rubella.aspx life force homeopathy german measles (rubella)

http://www.homeopathycenter.org/rubella-german-measles national center for homeopathy german measles (rubella)

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs-e_3jxj5m german measles causes symptoms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqhpdizpdw4 rubella (german measles)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vz6jocmme8 german measles (rubella)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvkmmdnadq0 nursing care of children: lympathic/immune - german measles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blbjojiyygs rubella virus (measles)

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/29/german-measles-declared-eradicated-from-north-and-south-america the guardian german measles declared eradicated from north and south america

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11595487/german-measles-is-offensive-to-the-germans-warns-who.html telegraph german measles is 'offensive' to the germans warns who

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/02/07/germany-is-battling-a-measles-outbreak-that-is-10-times-worse-than-the-one-in-the-u-s/?utm_term=.128550a7531f the washington post germany is battling a measles outbreak that is 10 times worse than the one in the u.s.

http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/576227/politically-correct-diseases-german-measles-swine-flu-banned-fear-offendingexpresss politically correct diseases: 'german measles' & 'swine flu' banned over fear of offending

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-103856/alternative-doctors-blamed-german-measles-outbreak.html daily mail alternative doctors blamed for german measles outbreak

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/04/zika-rubella/477165/ the atlantic what zika researchers can learn from the rubella outbreak of 1964

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-32523300 bbc news rubella (german measles) eradicated from americas

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/02/germany-measles-outbreak/385305/ the atlantic why is germany so calm about its measles outbreak?

http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/04/03/rubella-or-german-measles-how-to-recognise-the-signs_n_7373550.html huffington post rubella or german measles: how to recognise the signs

http://www.independent.com.mt/articles/2016-04-25/local-news/measles-and-german-measles-eradicated-from-malta-who-6736156845 independant measles and german measles eradicated from malta – who

 

 

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