Gastro intestinal bleeding

Gastro intestinal bleeding

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Gastro intestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in thegastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum. When there is significant blood loss over a short time, symptoms may include vomiting red blood, vomiting black blood, bloody stool, or black stool. Small amounts of bleeding over a long time may cause iron-deficiency anemia resulting in feeling tired or heart-related chest pain. Other symptoms may include abdominal pain, shortness of breath, pale skin, or passing out. Sometimes in those with small amounts of bleeding no symptoms may be present.

Bleeding is typically divided into two main types: upper gastrointestinal bleeding and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Causes of upper GI bleeds include: peptic ulcer disease, esophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis and cancer, among others. Causes of lower GI bleeds include: hemorrhoids, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease among others. Diagnosis typically begins with a medical history and physical examination, along with blood tests. Small amounts of bleeding may be detected by fecal occult blood test. Endoscopy of the lower and upper gastrointestinal track may locate the area of bleeding. Medical imaging may be useful in cases that are not clear.

Initial treatment focuses on resuscitation which may include intravenous fluids and blood transfusions. Often blood transfusions are not recommended unless the hemoglobin is less than 70 or 80 g/L. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors, octreotide, and antibiotics may be considered in certain cases. If other measures are not effective, an esophageal balloon may be attempted in those with persumed esophageal varices. Endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum or endoscopy of the large bowel are generally recommended within 24 hours and may allow treatment as well as diagnosis.

An upper GI bleed is more common than lower GI bleed. An upper GI bleed occurs in 50 to 150 per 100,000 adults per year. A lower GI bleed is estimated to occur in 20 to 30 per 100,000 per year. It results in about 300,000 hospital admissions a year in the United States. Risk of death from a GI bleed is between 5% and 30%. Risk of bleeding is more common in males and increases with age.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

Https:// medline plus gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// mayoclinic gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// health line what causes gastrointestinal bleeding? 45 possible conditions

Https:// merck manuals (professional version) overview of gi bleeding

Https:// national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney disorders gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// web mdbleeding in the digestive tract: why it happens

Http:// cleveland clinic gi bleeding

Http:// new york times gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// news medical what is gastrointestinal bleeding?

Https:// health grades what is gastrointestinal bleeding?

Http://,gastrointestinalbleeding/john hopkins medical library gastrointestinal bleeding or blood in the stool

Https:// very well what causes gastrointestinal bleeding in the esophagus


Advanced information:

Http:// emedicine health gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// medscape gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// patient upper gastrointestinal bleeding (includes rockall score)

Https:// radiopedia upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults am fam physician. 2005 apr 1;71(7):1339-1346.

Http:// geeky medics management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// applied radiology gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// right diagnosis gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// family practise notebook upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Http:// medpage today pre-endoscopy omeprazole for gi bleeding recommended

American gastroenterological association. "high doses of ibuprofen cause significant gi bleeding, despite safety profile." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 1 november 2005. .

Http:// medscape gastrointestinal bleeding: causes and clinical management: obscure bleeding



Https:// fahad saeed, nikhil agrawal, eugene greenberg, and jean l. Holley, “lower gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic hemodialysis patients,” international journal of nephrology, vol. 2011, article id 272535, 8 pages, 2011. Doi:10.4061/2011/272535

Al awad n. Leiomyoma of the small bowel - a rare cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report and literature review. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2000 [cited 2016 sep 28];6:92-4. Available from:

Http:// review article:the role of emergency endoscopy in small bowel bleeding: a review by enrique pérez-cuadrado-robleset al., ge portuguese journal of gastroenterology volume 23, issue 2, march–april 2016, pages 84–90

Https:// christopher ma, rajveer hundal, and edwin j. Cheng, “colonic dieulafoy’s lesion: a rare cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage and review of endoscopic management,” case reports in gastrointestinal medicine, vol. 2014, article id 436293, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/436293

Wee e. Management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. J postgrad med [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 sep 28];57:161-7. Available from:

Https:// victor wong, nathalie lefloch, and john r. Crawford, “fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a young boy with newly diagnosed metastatic medulloblastoma on high dose dexamethasone,” case reports in pediatrics, vol. 2014, article id 478326, 3 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/478326

Https:// marcos amorim, alan n. Barkun, martin larocque, karl herba, benoit devarennes, and myriam martel, “in-hospital nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding following cardiac surgery: patient characteristics, endoscopic lesions and prognosis,” ulcers, vol. 2012, article id 196982, 5 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/196982

Http:// radiol bras vol.48 no.6 são paulo nov./dec. 2015 review articles computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding* by fatima regina silva reis et al.,

Https:// dominic g. Ventura, shyam j. Thakkar, and katie farah, “retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in gastrointestinal medicine, vol. 2011, article id 358680, 3 pages, 2011. Doi:10.1155/2011/358680

Https:// christos salakos, panayiota kafritsa, yvelise de verney, ariadni sageorgi, and nick zavras, “massive gastric hemorrhage due to dieulafoy’s lesion in a preterm neonate: a case report and literature review of the lesion in neonates,” case reports in pediatrics, vol. 2015, article id 937839, 3 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/937839

Https:// s. Popeskou, m. Gavillet, n. Demartines, and d. Christoforidis, “hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and gastrointestinal bleeding: what a surgeon should know,” case reports in surgery, vol. 2015, article id 745848, 6 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/745848


Other articles:

Http:// pet md stomach and intestinal ulcers in dogs


Related videos:

Https:// gi bleed (upper git bleeding) part 1

Https:// upper gi bleed causes- overview

Https:// lower gi bleeds

Https:// lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Https:// management of an upper gi bleed

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