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Gaint cell arteritis(gca)/temporal arteritis/cranial arteritis/hortons disease

Gaint cell arteritis(gca)/temporal arteritis/cranial arteritis/hortons disease

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Gaint cell arteritis(gca)/temporal arteritis/cranial arteritis/hortons disease

Giant-cell arteritis (GCA or temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis) or Horton disease is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels most commonly involving large and medium arteries of the head, predominantly the branches of the external carotid artery. The most serious complication is occlusion of the ophthalmic artery, which is a branch of the internal carotid. It can create a medical emergency which can cause irreversible ischemia and blindness if not treated promptly. GCA is treated with glucocorticoids(steroids), which reduce the inflammation and prevent occlusion. No other drugs are effective or contribute to the effect of glucocorticoids.

GCA is a form of vasculitis. It typically causes inflammation of the network of small vessels (vasa vasorum) that supplies the larger arteries. GCA affects arteries of the head and neck, including the three arteries that branch out from the arch of the ascending aorta, and their branches—the thoracic aorta, the axillary arteries, the vertebral arteries, and further on in the head in the ophthalmic and external carotid arteries (the temporal and occipital arteries). It can cause occlusion of the arteries and ischemia.

GCA is diagnosed with biopsy of the temporal artery. While the clinical presentation, patient characteristics and blood test markers of inflammation can raise suspicion, only a temporal artery biopsy can give definite diagnosis. Some cases may not involve the temporal artery, and distinguishing between a false negative and the absence of GCA is difficult.

The terms "giant-cell arteritis" and "temporal arteritis" are sometimes used interchangeably, because of the frequent involvement of the temporal artery. However, it can involve other large vessels (such as the aorta in "giant-cell aortitis"). Giant-cell arteritis of the temporal artery is referred to as "temporal arteritis," and is also known as "cranial arteritis" and "Horton's disease." The name (giant-cell arteritis) reflects the type of inflammatory cell involved as seen on a biopsy.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/giant-cell-arteritis/basics/definition/con-20023109 gaint cell arteritis

http://www.rheumatology.org/i-am-a/patient-caregiver/diseases-conditions/giant-cell-arteritis american college of rheumatology gaint cell arteritis

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/giantcellarteritis.html gaint cell arteritis

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/giant-cell-arteritis/pages/introduction.aspx gaint cell arteritis

http://www.hopkinsvasculitis.org/types-vasculitis/giant-cell-arteritis/ john hopkins vasculitis center gaint cell arteritis

http://www.healthline.com/health/temporal-arteritis vasulitis foundation gaint cell arteritis

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/musculoskeletal-and-connective-tissue-disorders/vasculitis/giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis

http://www.vasculitis.org.uk/about-vasculitis/giant-cell-arteritis-temporal-arteritis vasculitis uk gaint cell arteritis

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/eyes-giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis

http://www.webmd.com/arthritis/questions-answers-about-polymyalgia-rheumatica-giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis

https://www.southerncross.co.nz/aboutthegroup/healthresources/medicallibrary/tabid/178/vw/1/itemid/173/giant-cell-arteritis-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.aspx southern cross medical library gaint cell arteritis

http://www.roche.com/final_acr_giant_cell_arteritis_infographic.pdf roche gaint cell arteritis

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332483-overview gaint cell arteritis

http://patient.info/health/giant-cell-arteritis-leaflet gaint cell arteritis

http://eyewiki.aao.org/giant_cell_arteritis american academy of ophthalmology

http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/arteritis-giant-cell/ gaint cell arteritis

http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/oc_exp.php?lng=gb&expert=397 gaint cell arteritis

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gec/studies/gca.html gaint cell arteritis

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/rheumatology/polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-giant-cell-arteritis/ polymyalgia rheumatica and gaint cell arteritis

http://www.fpnotebook.com/neuro/eye/gntclartrts.htm gaint cell arteritis

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis

http://www.uveitis.org/docs/dm/giant_cell_arteritis.pdf gaint cell arteritis

https://www.accp.com/docs/bookstore/psap/p6b11sample02.pdf polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis by j. Mark ruscin, pharm.d., bcps pharmacotherapy self-assessment program, 6th edition

https://www.medicine.uiowa.edu/eye/gca-1/ university of lowa caver college of medicine gaint cell arteritis

https://arupconsult.com/content/giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis diagnosis

http://www.physio-pedia.com/temporal_arteritis_(giant_cell_arteritis) gaint cell arteritis

 

Research:

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1547.html polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis brian unwin, col, mc, usa et al., am fam physician. 2006 nov 1;74(9):1547-1554.

http://www.healio.com/rheumatology/vasculitis-and-giant-cell-arteritis/news/online/%7bec9a768f-3ab9-4418-96c2-dc1b1c39a2b5%7d/relapses-common-in-patients-with-giant-cell-arteritis relapses common in patients with giant cell arteritis kermani ta, et al. J rheumatology. 2015;doi:10.3899/jrheum.141347.

http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v17/n1/full/6700240a.html eye (2003) 17, 92–93. Doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6700240 giant cell arteritis with a normal esr and crp by thomas r g poole et al,

http://www.e-jcgg.com/article/s2210-8335(10)00036-5/fulltext polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis martyn patel, mrcp, duncan r. Forsyth, ma, frcp journal of clinical gerontology and geriatrics march 2011volume 2, issue 1, pages 7–12 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcgg.2010.12.001

http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=776278 deterioration of giant cell arteritis with corticosteroid therapy by hugh staunton, phd, frcpi, frcp et al., arch neurol. 2000;57(4):581-584. Doi:10.1001/archneur.57.4.581

http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/84/9/1050.full.pdf tissue-destructive macrophages in giant cell arteritis by heike l. Rittner et al., (circ res. 1999;84:1050-1058.)

http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/104/4/425.full giant cell arteritis dendritic cells take two t’s to tango atilla yilmaz, moshe arditi circulation research.2009; 104: 425-427doi: 10.1161/circresaha.109.194266

http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/content/42/3/413.full.pdf rheumatology 2003;42:413–421 doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg116, available online at www.rheumatology.oupjournals.org review:giant cell arteritis: epidemiological clues to its pathogenesis and an update on its treatment e. Nordborg and c. Nordborg

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=s0066-782x2007000400027&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en arq. Bras. Cardiol. Vol.88 no.4 são paulo apr. 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0066-782x2007000400027 case report:coronary giant cell arteritis and acute myocardial infarction by pérsio godoy et al,

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/erj/7/12/2252.full.pdf unusual manifestations of giant cell arteritis: pulmonary nodules, cough, conjunctivitis and otitis with deafness by t. Zenone et al., eur respir j, 1994, 7, 2252–2254 doi: 10.1183/09031936.94.07122252

http://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar3358 giant cell arteritis: immune and vascular aging as disease risk factors by shalini v mohan et al,arthritis research & therapy201113:231 doi: 10.1186/ar3358

http://www.ajnr.org/content/36/1/91.full.pdf 3t mri reveals extra- and intracranial involvement in giant cell arteritis s. Siemonsen, c. Brekenfeld, b. Holst, a.-k. Kaufmann-buehler, j. Fiehler, and t.a. Bley ajnr am j neuroradiol 36:91–97 jan 2015

http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/pdf/10.1148/radiol.2272010487 mark e. Lockhart, md michelle l. Robbin, md case 58: giant cell arteritis 10.1148/radiol.2272010487 radiology 2003; 227:512–515

http://www.jultrasoundmed.org/content/23/11/1493.full.pdf the role of color duplex sonography in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis by antonio romera-villegas, md, et al., j ultrasound med 2004; 23:1493–1498 • 0278-4297/04/$3.50

http://vmj.sagepub.com/content/13/2/127.full.pdf giant cell arteritis: a systemic vascular disease federico tatò and ulrich hoffmann vascular medicine 2008; 13: 127–140

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fqodaflyfq medical school - giant cell arteritis

https://www.ypo.education/rheumatology/polymyalgia-rheumatica-t146/video/ polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rfpdizjyek

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjrdpvhl-dy temporal artery biopsy for giant cell arteritis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcmp7hdiyse giant cell arteritis ¦ treatment and symptoms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rih93wtpro temporal arteritis

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1520091-overview temporal artery biopsy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utifomuyh_4 temporal arteritis

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.slideshare.net/visionaryophthalmology/review-of-giant-cell-arteritis gaint cell arteritis review by david m.katz

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