Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Euthanasia (from Greek: e??a?as?a; "good death": e?, eu; "well" or "good" – ???at??, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.

There are different euthanasia laws in each country. The British House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics defines euthanasia as "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering".In the Netherlands and Flanders, euthanasia is understood as "termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient".

Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries. Non-voluntary euthanasia (patient's consent unavailable) is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia (without asking consent or against the patient's will) is also illegal in all countries and is usually considered murder. As of 2006, euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics.

In some countries there is a divisive public controversy over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of euthanasia. Those who are against euthanasia may argue for the sanctity of life, while proponents of euthanasia rights emphasize alleviating suffering, and preserving bodily integrity, self-determination, and personal autonomy. Jurisdictions where euthanasia is legal include theNetherlands, Canada, Colombia, Belgium, and Luxembourg.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic Information:

Http:// nhs uk euthanasia and assisted suicide methods of euthanasia


Advanced Information:

Http:// medical news today euthanasia and assisted suicide top 10 pros and cons should euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide be legal? ethics of euthanasia - introduction introduction to nazi euthanasia

Http:// euthanasia guidelines human rights and euthanasia the world federation of right to die societies what is the difference between assisted dying and euthanasia?



Https:// Curr Oncol. 2011 Apr; 18(2): e38–e45. PMCID: PMC3070710 Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls BY J. Pereira, mbchb msc.

Http:// The Groningen Protocol — Euthanasia in Severely Ill Newborns BY Eduard Verhagen, M.D., J.D., and Pieter J.J. Sauer, M.D., Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:959-962March 10, 2005DOI: 10.1056/nejmp058026

Http:// BMJ Open 2015;5:e007454 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007454 Mental health Euthanasia requests, procedures and outcomes for 100 Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: a retrospective, descriptive study BY Lieve Thienpont et al.

Http:// Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys by Peter T Thomsen and Jan Tind Sørensen Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica200850:33 DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-33

Https:// Steven Jason Crellin and Kenneth D. Katz, “Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication,” Case Reports in Emergency Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 6270491, 4 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/6270491

Http:// Euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions: a mortality follow-back study in Belgium by Lieve Van den Block et al., BMC Public Health20099:79 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-79

Http:// Tzivian L, Friger M, Kushnir T (2015) Associations between Stress and Quality of Life: Differences between Owners Keeping a Living Dog or Losing a Dog by Euthanasia. Plos ONE 10(3): e0121081. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121081

Http:// : Stolz E, Burkert N, Großschädl F, Rásky É,Stronegger WJ, Freidl W (2015) Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey. Plos ONE 10(4): e0124320. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124320

Khan F, Tadros G. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in Indian context: Sooner or later the need to ponder!. Indian J Psychol Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 Oct 19];35:101-5. Available from:

Http:// Reporting of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands: descriptive study by Hilde Buiting et al., BMC Medical Ethics200910:18 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-10-18

Http:// : Wong D, von Keyserlingk MAG, Richards JG, Weary DM (2014) Conditioned Place Avoidance of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Three Chemicals Used for Euthanasia and Anaesthesia. Plos ONE 9(2): e88030. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088030


Other Articles: PET MD Euthanasia... What To Expect DOG TIME Dog euthanasia


Other Helpful Resources(support groups): euthanasia prevention coalition voluntary euthanasia party hope


Presentations/Quiz/Newspaper articles: amendments to voluntary euthanasia laws in sa parliament sway mp nat cook daily mail 'he was a gifted artist': autistic boy, 10, 'gassed to death' with his family spoke through his paintings - as it's revealed his father consulted 'dr death' suicide expert phillip nitschke before turning home into a gas chamber

read more: the hindu chittoor’s euthanasia seekers telegraph netherlands sees sharp increase in people choosing euthanasia due to 'mental health problems' the guardian euthanasia and assisted suicide laws around the world hindustan times right to die: lines remain divided on legalising passive euthanasia the daily telegraph we don’t need to legalise euthanasia. what we need is better support washingtons post europe’s sinister expansion of euthanasia

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