Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are not specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with CKD. This disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, pericarditis or renal osteodystrophy (the latter included in the novel term CKD-MBD). CKD is a long-term form of kidney disease; thus, it is differentiated from acute kidney disease (acute kidney injury) in that the reduction in kidney function must be present for over 3 months. CKD is an internationally recognized public health problem affecting 5–10% of the world population.
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http://www.jnephropharmacology.com/pdf/npj-5-28.pdf nazar cmj, bojerenu mm, safdar m, armughan ahmed a, akhtar mh, kindratt tb. Efficacy of dietary interventions in end-stage renal disease patients; a systematic review. J nephropharmacol. 2016;5(1):28-40.
El minshawy o, ghabrah t, el bassuoni e. End-stage renal disease in tabuk area, saudi arabia: an epidemiological study. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jun 9];25:192-5. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2014/25/1/192/124574