Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average of about 50 percent. This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows six to sixteen days after symptoms appear.

The virus spreads by direct contact with body fluids, such as blood, of an infected human or other animals. This may also occur through contact with an item recently contaminated with bodily fluids. Spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions. Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months. Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it. Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.

Control of outbreaks requires coordinated medical services, alongside a certain level of community engagement. The medical services include rapid detection of cases of disease, contact tracing of those who have come into contact with infected individuals, quick access to laboratory services, proper healthcare for those who are infected, and proper disposal of the dead throughcremation or burial. Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution. Prevention includes limiting the spread of disease from infected animals to humans. This may be done by handling potentially infected bush meat only while wearing protective clothing and by thoroughly cooking it before eating it. It also includes wearing proper protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease. No specific treatment or vaccine for the virus is available, although a number of potential treatments are being studied. Supportive efforts, however, improve outcomes. This includes either oral rehydration therapy (drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids as well as treating symptoms.

The disease was first identified in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, and the other in Yambuku, a village near theEbola River from which the disease takes its name. EVD outbreaks occur intermittently in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Between 1976 and 2013, the World Health Organization reports a total of 24 outbreaks involving 1,716 cases. The largest outbreak to date was the epidemic in West Africa, which occurred from December 2013 to January 2016 with 28,657 cases and 11,325 deaths. It was declared no longer an emergency on 29 March 2016.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ebola-virus/pages/ebola-virus.aspx nhs uk ebola virus disease

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ebola-fever-virus-infection ebola virus disease

http://www.healthline.com/health/ebola-hemorrhagic-fever health line ebola virus disease

http://www.livescience.com/48311-ebola-causes-symptoms-treatment.html live science ebola: causes, symptoms & treatment

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/basics/causes/con-20031241 ebola virus disease

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/infectious/factsheets/pages/ebola-virus-disease.aspx health.nsw ebola virus disease

http://www.chp.gov.hk/en/content/9/24/34397.html center for health protection ebola virus disease

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthfeatures/ebola-virus-disease.html health link bc ebola virus disease

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/ebola-virus-disease-evd better health ebola virus disease

http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition/getcondition/ebola-virus-disease body and health canada.com ebola virus disease

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/ebola_virus_disease_ebola_hemorrhagic_fever/article_em.htm emedicine health ebola virus disease

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic-ebola-virus-disease ebola virus disease


Advanced information:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/ ebola virus disease fact sheet n°103
updated january 2016

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease upt date ebola virus disease

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/216288-overview medscape ebola virus disease

http://www.medicinenet.com/ebola_hemorrhagic_fever_ebola_hf/article.htm medicine net.com ebola virus disease

http://ead.sjteducacaomedica.com.br/pluginfile.php/894/mod_resource/content/2/ebola%20virus-%20review.pdf ebola virus disease: a review on epidemiology,symptoms, treatment and pathogenesis by m. Goeijenbier et al., november 2014, vol. 72, no 9

http://www.emergencydispatch.org/ebola-alert-august28 international academics of emergency dispatch iaed recommendations regarding ebola virus disease and travelers received from west africa

http://www.dupont.com/content/dam/dupont/products-and-services/personal-protective-equipment/personal-protective-equipment-landing/documents/dupont_ebola_tech_bulletin_na_111014.pdf protective clothing for ebola virus disease (evd) technical bulletin for north america

http://www.britannica.com/science/ebola britannica ebola virus disease

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/ebola-virus-disease-1 radiopedia ebola virus disease

http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/guidance-survivors.pdf interim guidance clinical care for survivors of ebola virus disease 22 January 2016



Vanessa n r, matthias b. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. J global infect dis [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 may 31];4:69-74. Available from: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2012/4/1/69/93765

Kalra s, kelkar d, galwankar sc, papadimos tj, stawicki sp, arquilla b, hoey ba, sharpe rp, sabol d, jahre ja. The emergence of ebola as a global health security threat: from 'lessons learned' to coordinated multilateral containment efforts . J global infect dis [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 may 31];6:164-77. Available from: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2014/6/4/164/145247

http://www.jclmm.com/qk/20151/1.pdf cesar marcial escobedo-bonilla /journal of coastal life medicine 2015; 3(1): 1-17a review on the ebola virus, outbreak history and the current research tools to control the disease by cesar marcial escobedo-bonilla.

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00267/full review article front. Microbiol., 05 september 2013 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00267 animal models for ebola and marburg virus infections by eri nakayama and masayuki saijo

Wiwanitkit v. Ebola virus infection: what should be known?. North am j med sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 may 31];6:549-52. Available from: http://www.najms.org/text.asp?2014/6/11/549/145458

http://www.jclmm.com/qk/20152/1.pdf ebola virus disease: a literature review by hirokazu kimura et al., hirokazu kimura et al./journal of coastal life medicine 2015; 3(2): 85-90

Bhatnagar n, grover m, kotwal a, chauhan h. Study of recent ebola virus outbreak and lessons learned: a scoping study. Ann trop med public health [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 may 31];9:145-51. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2016/9/3/145/181658

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1411099#t=article ebola virus disease in the democratic republic of congo by gaël d. Maganga et al., n engl j med 2014; 371:2083-2091november 27, 2014doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1411099

http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/supplement_1/ix.full an introduction to ebola: the virus and the disease by c. J. Peters and j. W. Peters j infect dis. (1999) 179(supplement 1): ix-xvi.doi: 10.1086/514322

http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1918461 ebola virus disease and childrenwhat pediatric health care professionals need to know by georgina peacock, md, mph et al., jama pediatr. 2014;168(12):1087-1088. Doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.2835.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2221169115303658 ebola virus disease: past, present and future by harish rajak et al., asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicinevolume 5, issue 5, may 2015, pages 337–343 doi:10.1016/s2221-1691(15)30365-8


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slmese9-7yg ebola virus disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdzzf1bg4q0 ebola virus disease - from animals to humans???????

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbykhhaojdc evd: ebola virus disease outbreak

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6dqg_-u3_c ebola virus disease documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9abi90ecegq ebola virus disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udicsp3femi who and partners respond to the outbreak of ebola virus disease in guinea

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsna7zmmmww ebola virus disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcrode-jys0 the story of ebola


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://zeenews.india.com/news/health/health-news/who-confirms-new-ebola-case-in-liberia_1871616.html who confirms new ebola case in liberia

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