Diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney disease) is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli. It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse scarring of the glomeruli. It is due to long standing diabetes mellitus, and is a prime reason for dialysis in many developed countries. It is classified as a small blood vessel complication of diabetes.
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Http://guidelines.diabetes.ca/browse/chapter29 canadian diabetes association clinical practice guidelines expert committee. Canadian diabetes association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in canada. Can j diabetes 2013;37(suppl 1):s1-s212.
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/987064/ li xiao, ming wang, shikun yang, fuyou liu, and lin sun, “a glimpse of the pathogenetic mechanisms of wnt/ß-catenin signaling in diabetic nephropathy,” biomed research international, vol. 2013, article id 987064, 7 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/987064
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3257603/ jiao ying ou, di huang, yan sheng wu, et al., “a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of yiqi yangyin huoxue method in treating diabetic nephropathy,” evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, vol. 2016, article id 3257603, 12 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/3257603
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/315494/ shinji kume, daisuke koya, takashi uzu, and hiroshi maegawa, “role of nutrient-sensing signals in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy,” biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 315494, 9 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/315494
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/928197/ masako furukawa, tomohito gohda, mitsuo tanimoto, and yasuhiko tomino, “pathogenesis and novel treatment from the mouse model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy,” the scientific world journal, vol. 2013, article id 928197, 8 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/928197
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2016/4647685/ temesgen fiseha and zemenu tamir, “urinary markers of tubular injury in early diabetic nephropathy,”international journal of nephrology, vol. 2016, article id 4647685, 10 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/4647685
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2008/879523/ shinji kume, takashi uzu, keiji isshiki, and daisuke koya, “peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in diabetic nephropathy,” ppar research, vol. 2008, article id 879523, 11 pages, 2008. Doi:10.1155/2008/879523
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/404085/ suvi e. Heinonen, guillem genové, eva bengtsson, et al., “animal models of diabetic macrovascular complications: key players in the development of new therapeutic approaches,” journal of diabetes research, vol. 2015, article id 404085, 14 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/404085
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/160692/ chenlin gao, wei huang, keizo kanasaki, and yong xu, “the role of ubiquitination and sumoylation in diabetic nephropathy,” biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 160692, 11 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/160692
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/4626125/ cristina gluhovschi, gheorghe gluhovschi, ligia petrica, et al., “urinary biomarkers in the assessment of early diabetic nephropathy,” journal of diabetes research, vol. 2016, article id 4626125, 13 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/4626125