Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine. There are different types of DI, each with a different set of causes. The most common type in humans is the neurological form, called central DI (CDI), which involves a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which is due to kidney or nephron dysfunction caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys or nephrons to ADH. DI can also be gestational, or caused by alcohol or some types of drug abuse. DI should not be confused with nocturia.
Although they have a common name, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two entirely separate conditions with unrelated mechanisms. Both cause large amounts of urine to be produced (polyuria). However, diabetes insipidus is either a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (central diabetes insipidus) or kidney's response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), whereas diabetes mellitus causes polyuria via a process called osmotic diuresis, due to the high blood sugar leaking into the urine and taking excess water along with it.
The number of new cases of diabetes insipidus each year is 3 in 100,000. Diabetes insipidus usually starts in childhood or early adulthood and affects men more commonly than women. The term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek word meaning siphon.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2016/2047410/ resmi premji, nira roopnarinesingh, joshua cohen, and sabyasachi sen, “cerebral malaria: an unusual cause of central diabetes insipidus,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2016, article id 2047410, 4 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/2047410
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/3740902/ k. Earlam, c. A. Souza, r. Glikstein, m. M. Gomes, and s. Pakhalé, “pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus in a young smoker,” canadian respiratory journal, vol. 2016, article id 3740902, 5 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/3740902
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2014/693294/ masahiro asakawa, rina chin, yoshihiro niitsu, et al., “a case of rathke’s cleft cyst associated with transient central adrenal insufficiency and masked diabetes insipidus,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2014, article id 693294, 6 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/693294
Kumar m, dutta d, shivaprasad k s, jain r, sen a, biswas d, mukhopadhyay m, ghosh s, mukhopadhyay s, chowdhury s. Diabetes insipidus as a presenting manifestation of rathke's cleft cyst. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 aug 31];17, suppl s1:127-9. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/7/127/119529
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/797620/ chadi saifan, rabih nasr, suchita mehta, et al., “diabetes insipidus: a challenging diagnosis with new drug therapies,” isrn nephrology, vol. 2013, article id 797620, 7 pages, 2013. Doi:10.5402/2013/797620