cyanosis
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Cyanosis

Cyanosis

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Cyanosis

Cyanosis is the appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation. Based on Lundsgaard and Van Slyke's work, it is classically described as occurring if 5.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin or greater is present. This was based on an "estimate" of capillary saturation based on a mean of arterial versus peripheral venous blood gas measurements. Since estimation of hypoxia is usually now based either on arterial blood gas measurement or pulse oximetry, this is probably an overestimate, with evidence that levels of 2.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin may reliably produce cyanosis. Since, however, the presence of cyanosis is dependent upon there being an absolute quantity of deoxyhemoglobin, the bluish color is more readily apparent in those with high hemoglobin counts than it is with those with anemia. Also the bluer color is more difficult to detect on deeply pigmented skin. When signs of cyanosis first appear, such as on the lips or fingers, intervention should be made within 3–5 minutes because a severe hypoxia or severe circulatory failure may have induced the cyanosis.

The name cyanosis literally means "the blue disease" or "the blue condition". It is derived from the color cyan, which comes fromkyanós, the Greek word for "blue".

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003215.htm medline plus skin discoloration - bluish

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-cyanosis.aspx news medical what is cyanosis?

http://www.healthline.com/health/peripheral-cyanosis health line peripheral cyanosis

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cyanosis/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk blue skin and lips (cyanosis)

https://www.healthgrades.com/symptoms/cyanosis health grades what is cyanosis?

http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/en/resourcecentres/congenitalheartconditions/aboutcongenitalheartconditions/signsandsymptoms/pages/cyanosis.aspx about kids health cyanosis

http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/lung-and-airway-disorders/symptoms-of-lung-disorders/cyanosis merck manuals (consumer version) cyanosis

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/cyanotic-heart-disease university of maryland medical center cyanotic heart disease

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-cyanosis-914778 very well what is cyanosis?

 

Advanced information:

http://patient.info/in/doctor/cyanosis patient cyanosis

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/303533-overview medscape cyanosis

https://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s03c07.html cyanosis in newborns

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease radiopedia cyanotic congenital heart disease

http://www.achd-library.com/consensus/sec16.html management of cyanotic patients

https://online.epocrates.com/diseases/76822/evaluation-of-cyanosis-in-the-newborn/history-exam epocrates online evaluation of cyanosis in the newborn

http://www.emdocs.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/cyanosis-wfak.pdf emdocs cyanosis

 

Research:

Mohd zainudin ar, tiong kg, mokhtar sa. Cor triatriatum dexter: a rare cause of childhood cyanosis. Ann pediatr card [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 sep 25];5:92-4. Available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2012/5/1/92/93725

Shobi a, tullu m s, bhatia s, agrawal m. An unusual cause of central cyanosis in a nine-year-old boy. J postgrad med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 sep 25];58:314-7. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2012/58/4/314/105468

Alghamdi mh. Cor triatriatum dexter: a rare cause of cyanosis during neonatal period. Ann pediatr card [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 25];9:46-8. Available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2016/9/1/46/171408

Isaac bt, barbagallo r, samuel jt. An unusual cause for cyanosis. Lung india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 25];33:560-1. Available from: http://www.lungindia.com/text.asp?2016/33/5/560/188987

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/614647/ devendra v. Kulkarni, rahul g. Hegde, ankit balani, and anagha r. Joshi, “a rare case of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect with a right sided aortic arch and a calcified pulmonary avm presenting in an adult without cyanosis,” case reports in radiology, vol. 2014, article id 614647, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/614647

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2011/508171/ xue-yan ding, feng chen, xian-xian zhao, hong wu, shao-ping chen, and yong-wen qin, “a rare cause of cyanosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome caused by congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt,” case reports in vascular medicine, vol. 2011, article id 508171, 3 pages, 2011. Doi:10.1155/2011/508171

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2011/175931/ a. Izraelit, v. Ten, g. Krishnamurthy, and v. Ratner, “neonatal cyanosis: diagnostic and management challenges,” isrn pediatrics, vol. 2011, article id 175931, 4 pages, 2011. Doi:10.5402/2011/175931

Thakran v, gupta a. Cyanosis in a patient with atrial septal defect. J pract cardiovasc sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 sep 25];1:74-5. Available from: http://www.j-pcs.org/text.asp?2015/1/1/74/157579

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/19/4/780 dyspnoea and cyanosis in a cirrhotic patient

G. Stratakos, k. Malagari, e. Broutzos, e. Zakynthinos, c. Roussos, s. Papiris

European respiratory journal 2002 19: 780-783; doi: 10.1183/09031936.02.00257802

http://icvts.oxfordjournals.org/content/4/1/15.full cyanosis in atrial septal defect without pulmonary hypertension: a case of platypnea-orthodeoxya syndrome by isidoro di bella et al., interact cardiovasc thorac surg(2005) 4 (1): 15-17.doi: 10.1510/icvts.2004.090811

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/cardiovascular/c_dg_cyanosis pet md blue skin and mucus membranes in dogs

http://www.pethealthnetwork.com/dog-health/dog-diseases-conditions-a-z/cyanosis-dogs-and-cats pet health network cyanosis in dogs and cats

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a40wuvqrx5c cyanosis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xdgfjmht68 cardiology - hypoxia and cyanosis: by jon silberberg m.d.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t90xtrhc-3u cyanosis - 2e by dr megren fuad alkhayatt

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcrupbxvdeq how to examine cyanosis?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l76fn-9uqos cyanosis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skkgpwq64ni generalized cyanosis

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