conus-medullaris
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Conus medullaris

Conus medullaris

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris (Latin for "medullary cone") is the tapered, lower end of the spinal cord. It occurs near lumbar vertebral levels 1 (L1) and 2 (L2), occasionally lower. The upper end of the conus medullaris is usually not well defined.

After the spinal cord tapers out, the spinal nerves continue to branch out diagonally, forming the cauda equina.

The pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord, however, projects directly downward, forming a slender filament called the filum terminale, which connects the conus medullaris to the back of the coccyx. The filum terminale provides a connection between the conus medullaris and the coccyx which stabilizes the entire spinal cord.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1148690-overview medscape cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1148690-clinical medscape cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes clinical presentation

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/conus-medullaris-syndrome radiopedia conus medullaris syndrome

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/conus-medullaris radiopedia conus medullaris syndrome

http://www.spinalcord.com/conus-medullaris-syndrome spinal cord .com conus medullaris syndrome

 

Research:

Chaudhary ks, bapat mr. Conus medullaris syndrome due to an intradural disc herniation: a case report. Indian j orthop [serial online] 2008 [cited 2016 nov 28];42:94-6. Available from: http://www.ijoonline.com/text.asp?2008/42/1/94/38590

Singh n n, verma r, pankaj b k, misra s. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis . Neurol india [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 nov 28];51:118-20. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2003/51/1/118/1058

Pai s b, krishna k n. Secondary holocord syringomyelia with spinal hemangioblastoma: a report of two cases . Neurol india [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 nov 28];51:67-8. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2003/51/1/67/1035

Oktay k, cetinalp ne, ozsoy km, olguner sk, sarac me, vural sb. Intramedullary mature teratoma of the conus medullaris. J neurosci rural pract [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 nov 28];7:305-7. Available from: http://www.ruralneuropractice.com/text.asp?2016/7/2/305/176186

Hsieh ct, sun jm, liu my. Lipoma of conus medullaris without spinal dysraphism in an adult. Neurol india [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 nov 28];57:825-6. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2009/57/6/825/59497

Natarajan m. Conus medullaris teratoma presenting as myokymia. Neurol india [serial online] 1999 [cited 2016 nov 28];47:251. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?1999/47/3/251/1597

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ari/2014/351769/ c. D. Moussallem, h. El masri, c. El-yahchouchi, f. Abou fakher, and a. Ibrahim, “relationship of the lumbar lordosis angle to the level of termination of the conus medullaris and thecal sac,” anatomy research international, vol. 2014, article id 351769, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/351769

Srinivas h, kumar a. Silent neurenteric cyst with split cord malformation at conus medullaris: case report and literature review. J pediatr neurosci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 nov 28];9:246-8. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2014/9/3/246/147579

Jia l, ji h, ren s, li l, li g, zhang x, ding x. Giant arteriovenous malformation in the conus medullaris mimicking a tumor. Neurol india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 nov 28];64:823-5. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/4/823/185406

Gaikwad s b, sharma s, kumar s. Successful embolization of a conus medullaris arteriovenous malformation using onyx. Neurol india [serial online] 2010 [cited 2016 nov 28];58:817-8. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2010/58/5/817/72207

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/201745/ jay chol choi, “conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2014, article id 201745, 3 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/201745

Miekisiak g. Complete avulsion of spinal cord and cauda equina: a case report. J craniovert jun spine [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 nov 28];6:86-8. Available from: http://www.jcvjs.com/text.asp?2015/6/2/86/156070

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3280119/ wong jj, dufton j, mior sa. Spontaneous conus medullaris infarction in a 79 year-old female with cardiovascular risk factors: a case report. The journal of the canadian chiropractic association. 2012;56(1):58-65.

http://fn.bmj.com/content/77/1/f67.full level of conus medullaris in term and preterm neonates

by f sahin et al., arch dis child fetal neonatal ed 1997;77:f67-f69 doi:10.1136/fn.77.1.f67

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/201745/ jay chol choi, “conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2014, article id 201745, 3 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/201745

Goyal rk, nayak b, maharshi r, biswal d. Cavernous malformation in the conus medullaris: a rare report. Neurol india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 nov 29];64:821-3. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/4/821/185416

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owzcdxzj4wu difference between conus medullaris & cauda equine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ic5ahhaigns review of conus medullaris syndrome vs. Cauda equina syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2gcbpvguou "neural repair of cauda equina and conus medullaris forms of spinal cord injury" - dr. Leif havton

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zotkrf6e5u intercostal nerves and conus medullaris www.ezqmeceu.com

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