Compartment syndrome is increased pressure within one of the body's compartments which contains muscles and nerves. Compartment syndrome most commonly occurs in compartments in the leg or arm. There are two main types of compartment syndrome: acute and chronic.
Acute compartment syndrome occurs after a traumatic injury such as a car crash. The trauma causes a severe high pressure in the compartment which results in insufficient blood supply to muscles and nerves. Acute compartment syndrome is a medical emergency that requires surgery to correct. If untreated, the lack of blood supply leads to permanent muscle and nerve damage and can result in the loss of function of the limb.
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an exercise-induced condition in which the pressure in the muscles increases to extreme levels during exercise. The pressure creates a decrease in blood flow to the affected area which leads to a deprivation of oxygen to the muscles. The symptoms are a sensation of extreme tightness in the affected muscles followed by a burning sensation if exercise is continued. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome usually occurs in athletes who participate in repetitive impact sports such as running.
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http://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2318-10-51 case report:open access:compartment syndrome of the thigh. A case report with delayed onset after stable pelvic ring fracture and chronic anticoagulation therapie by rolf d burghardt et al., bmc geriatricsbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201010:51 doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-51
Shaheen aw, crandall ml, nicolson ng, smith-singares e, merlotti gj, jalundhwala y, issa nm. Abdominal compartment syndrome in trauma patients: new insights for predicting outcomes. J emerg trauma shock [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 may 4];9:53-7. Available from: http://www.onlinejets.org/text.asp?2016/9/2/53/179452
http://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-7922-5-22 review,open access a case report of thoracic compartment syndrome in the setting of penetrating chest trauma and review of the literature by michael w wandling and gary c an world journal of emergency surgery20105:22 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-5-22
Chhabra p, gupta n, kaushik a. Compartment syndrome as a spectrum of purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration in a young male: a case report and review of literature. Neurol india [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 may 4];61:419-20. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2013/61/4/419/117611