Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is the inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under normal lighting conditions. Color blindness affects a significant percentage of the population. There is no actual blindness but there is a deficiency of color vision. The most usual cause is a fault in the development of one or more sets of retinal cones that perceive color in light and transmit that information to the optic nerve. This type of color blindness is usually a sex-linked condition. The genes that produce photopigments are carried on the X chromosome; if some of these genes are missing or damaged, color blindness will be expressed in males with a higher probability than in females because males only have one X chromosome, whereas females have two and a functional gene on only one of the X chromosomes is sufficient to yield the necessary photopigments.
Color blindness can also be produced by physical or chemical damage to the eye, the optic nerve, or parts of the brain. For example, people with achromatopsia suffer from a completely different disorder, but are nevertheless unable to see colors.
Color blindness is usually classified as a mild disability. There are occasional circumstances where it is an advantage: some studies conclude that color blind people are better at penetrating certain color camouflages. Such findings may give an evolutionary reason for the high prevalence of red–green color blindness. There is also a study suggesting that people with some types of color blindness can distinguish colors that people with normal color vision are not able to distinguish.
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Gupta m, gupta bp, chauhan a, bhardwaj a. Ocular morbidity prevalence among school children in shimla, himachal, north india. Indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 may 26];57:133-8. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2009/57/2/133/45503
http://airccse.org/journal/jcsit/5513ijcsit02.pdf international journal of computer science & information technology (ijcsit) vol 5, no 5, october 2013 doi : 10.5121/ijcsit.2013.5502 21 automatic detection of microaneurysms and hemorrhages in color eye fundus images by sérgio bortolin júnior and daniel welfer