Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with aCCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration,polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to 15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.
Colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy—the difference being related to which parts of the colon each can examine. A colonoscopy allows an examination of the entire colon (1200–1500 mm in length). A sigmoidoscopy allows an examination of the distal portion (about 600 mm) of the colon, which may be sufficient because benefits to cancer survival of colonoscopy have been limited to the detection of lesions in the distal portion of the colon.
A sigmoidoscopy is often used as a screening procedure for a full colonoscopy, often done in conjunction with a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). About 5% of these screened patients are referred to colonoscopy.
Virtual colonoscopy, which uses 2D and 3D imagery reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scans or from nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) scans, is also possible, as a totally non-invasive medical test, although it is not standard and still under investigation regarding its diagnostic abilities. Furthermore, virtual colonoscopy does not allow for therapeutic maneuvers such as polyp/tumour removal or biopsy nor visualization of lesions smaller than 5 millimeters. If a growth or polyp is detected using CT colonography, a standard colonoscopy would still need to be performed. Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the termpouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2016/8714587/ renée m. Janssen, oliver takach, estello nap-hill, and robert a. Enns, “time to endoscopy in patients with colorectal cancer: analysis of wait-times,” canadian journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, vol. 2016, article id 8714587, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/8714587
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/9643162/ david friedel, rani modayil, and stavros stavropoulos, “colon capsule endoscopy: review and perspectives,”gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2016, article id 9643162, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/9643162
Http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/anand%20-%203.pdf anand morri, k. B. S. Prabhakar, siva sankar rao kurra. “per rectal bleeding in young patients-evaluation by colonoscopy: a study of 400 cases”. Journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 40, october 05, 2015; page: 6587-6590, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/899
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2548109/ bin deng, jiehua zhi, yaosheng chen, et al., “the impact of colonoscopy quality control table on adenoma detection rates,” gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2016, article id 2548109, 7 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/2548109
Cardin f, minicuci n, andreotti a, granziera e, militello c. Factors influencing challenging colonoscopies during anesthesiologist-assisted deep sedation. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 21];22:64-8. Available from: http://www.saudijgastro.com/text.asp?2016/22/1/64/173761
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/dte/2013/798651/ c. A. Onyekwere, j. N. Odiagah, o. O. Ogunleye, c. Chibututu, and o. A. Lesi, “colonoscopy practice in lagos, nigeria: a report of an audit,” diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy, vol. 2013, article id 798651, 6 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/798651
Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2009/518932/ carolina jimenez-rivera, donna haas, margaret boland, janice l. Barkey, and david r. Mack, “comparison of two common outpatient preparations for colonoscopy in children and youth,” gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2009, article id 518932, 4 pages, 2009. Doi:10.1155/2009/518932