Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with aCCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration,polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to 15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.

Colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy—the difference being related to which parts of the colon each can examine. A colonoscopy allows an examination of the entire colon (1200–1500 mm in length). A sigmoidoscopy allows an examination of the distal portion (about 600 mm) of the colon, which may be sufficient because benefits to cancer survival of colonoscopy have been limited to the detection of lesions in the distal portion of the colon.

A sigmoidoscopy is often used as a screening procedure for a full colonoscopy, often done in conjunction with a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). About 5% of these screened patients are referred to colonoscopy.

Virtual colonoscopy, which uses 2D and 3D imagery reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scans or from nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) scans, is also possible, as a totally non-invasive medical test, although it is not standard and still under investigation regarding its diagnostic abilities. Furthermore, virtual colonoscopy does not allow for therapeutic maneuvers such as polyp/tumour removal or biopsy nor visualization of lesions smaller than 5 millimeters. If a growth or polyp is detected using CT colonography, a standard colonoscopy would still need to be performed. Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the termpouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

Http:// web md colonoscopy

Https:// institute of digestive and diabetes and kidney diseases colonoscopy

Http:// american college of gastroenterology colonoscopy

Https:// medline plus colonoscopy

Http:// mayo clinic colonoscopy

Http:// cleveland clinic colonoscopy

Http:// american society for gastro intestinal endoscopy colonoscopy

Https:// better health colonoscopy

Http:// bupa colonoscopy

Http:// health line colonoscopy

Http:// canada preparing for a colonoscopy

Https:// health grades colonoscopy

Http:// new york times colonoscopy

Https:// health link bc colonoscopy


Advanced information:

Http:// medicine net colonoscopy

Http:// patient colonoscopy

Http:// medscape colonoscopy

Http:// emedicine health colonoscopy

Http:// radiology info colonoscopy

Http:// upto date patient education: colonoscopy (beyond the basics)



Http:// arq. Gastroenterol. Vol.46 no.2 são paulo apr./june 2009 artigo original original article terminal ileum of patients who underwent colonoscopy: endoscopic, histologic and clinical aspects by marcelo maia caixeta de melo et al.,

Https:// renée m. Janssen, oliver takach, estello nap-hill, and robert a. Enns, “time to endoscopy in patients with colorectal cancer: analysis of wait-times,” canadian journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, vol. 2016, article id 8714587, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/8714587

Https:// david friedel, rani modayil, and stavros stavropoulos, “colon capsule endoscopy: review and perspectives,”gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2016, article id 9643162, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/9643162

Http:// colonoscopic perforation leading to a diagnosis of ehlers danlos syndrome type iv: a case report and review of the literature by mariam rana et al., journal of medical case reports20115:229 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-229

Http:// does the variable-stiffness colonoscope makes colonoscopy easier? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of the variable stiffness colonoscope compared with the standard adult colonoscope by qin xie et al., bmc gastroenterology201212:151 doi: 10.1186/1471-230x-12-151

Http:// anand morri, k. B. S. Prabhakar, siva sankar rao kurra. “per rectal bleeding in young patients-evaluation by colonoscopy: a study of 400 cases”. Journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 40, october 05, 2015; page: 6587-6590, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/899

Https:// bin deng, jiehua zhi, yaosheng chen, et al., “the impact of colonoscopy quality control table on adenoma detection rates,” gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2016, article id 2548109, 7 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/2548109

Http:// arq. Gastroenterol. Vol.42 no.2 são paulo apr./june 2005 original article colonoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method of the large bowel diseases: analysis of 2,567 exams by sergio carlos nahas et al.,

Cardin f, minicuci n, andreotti a, granziera e, militello c. Factors influencing challenging colonoscopies during anesthesiologist-assisted deep sedation. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 sep 21];22:64-8. Available from:

Https:// sevim ustek, mertay boran, and kemal kismet, “benign pneumoperitoneum after colonoscopy,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2010, article id 631036, 3 pages, 2010. Doi:10.1155/2010/631036

Http:// splenic rupture after colonoscopy: report of a case and review of literature by alessandro cappellani et al., world journal of emergency surgery20083:8 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-3-8

Https:// c. A. Onyekwere, j. N. Odiagah, o. O. Ogunleye, c. Chibututu, and o. A. Lesi, “colonoscopy practice in lagos, nigeria: a report of an audit,” diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy, vol. 2013, article id 798651, 6 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/798651

Https:// carolina jimenez-rivera, donna haas, margaret boland, janice l. Barkey, and david r. Mack, “comparison of two common outpatient preparations for colonoscopy in children and youth,” gastroenterology research and practice, vol. 2009, article id 518932, 4 pages, 2009. Doi:10.1155/2009/518932


Related videos:

Https:// youtube 5 minutes total colonoscopy tcs

Https:// colonoscopy actual procedure

Https:// colonoscopy

Https:// how a colonoscopy is performed

Https:// live colonoscopy

Https:// colonoscopy: a journey through the colon and removal of polyps


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

Https:// scientific american many colonoscopies for seniors carry unnecessary risks

Http:// cnn coming clean about my first colonoscopy

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