cholecystitis
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Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis (Greek, cholecyst-, "gallbladder", combined with the suffix -itis, "inflammation") is inflammation of the gallbladder. Although most people with gallstones do not have symptoms and will not go on to develop cholecystitis, cholecystitis occurs most commonly due to blockage of the cystic duct with gallstones (cholelithiasis). This blockage causes a buildup of bile in the gallbladder and increased pressure within the gallbladder, leading to right upper abdominal pain. Concentrated bile, pressure, and sometimes bacterial infection irritate and damage the gallbladder wall, causing inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder. Inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder can reduce normal blood flow to areas of the gallbladder, which can lead to cell death due to inadequate oxygen.

Risk factors for gallstones and cholecystitis are similar and include female sex, increasing age, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, obesity, diabetes mellitus, ethnicity (Native North American), rapid weight loss. Cholecystitis is diagnosed based on the characteristic symptoms of right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever as well as laboratory testing showing an increased white blood count. Abdominal ultrasound is typically also used in diagnosis. Uncomplicated cholecystitis has an excellent prognosis; however, more than 25% of patients require surgery or develop complications. Delayed diagnosis of acute cholecystitis increases morbidity and mortality. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis may present as a single episode or may recur on multiple occasions.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000264.htm medline plus acute cholecystitis

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cholecystitis/basics/definition/con-20034277 cholecystitis

http://www.healthline.com/health/acute-cholecystitis health line acute cholecystitis

http://www.healthline.com/health/chronic-cholecystitis health line what is chronic cholecystitis?

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cholecystitis-acute/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk acute cholecystitis

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/hepatic-and-biliary-disorders/gallbladder-and-bile-duct-disorders/acute-cholecystitis msd manuals acute cholecystitis by ali a. Siddiqui, md

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/cholecystitis-overview cholecystitis

http://www.everydayhealth.com/gallbladder/guide/cholecystitis/ every day health what is cholecystitis?

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172067.php mnt what is cholecystitis? What causes cholecystitis?

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic-cholecystitis cholecystitis

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/acute-cholecystitis-gallstones/overview.html newyork times cholecystitis

http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/cholecystitis/ nord cholecystitis

http://www.your.md/condition/cholecystitis-acute your md cholecystitis

http://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/c/cholecystitis,-acute/complications-of-acute-cholecystitis.html health service executive cholecystitis

http://www.patienteducationcenter.org/articles/cholecystitis/ patient education center cholecystitis

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=zw1011spec health link bc cholecystitis

https://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/aftercareinformation/pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=ug5392 my health alberta ca what is cholecystitis?

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/171886-overview medscape cholecystitis

http://patient.info/health/cholecystitis patient cholecystitis

http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=cholecystitis radiology info cholecystitis

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/acute-cholecystitis radiopedia.org cholecystitis

http://fitsweb.uchc.edu/student/selectives/luzietti/gallbladder_cholecystitis.htm university of connecticut health center cholecystitis

http://www.fpnotebook.com/surgery/gi/actchlcysts.htm family practise notebook cholecystitis

http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/gallbladderchroniccholecystitis.html pathology outlines cholecystitis

http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/dtc/primsurg/docbook/html/x3982.html primary surgery: volume one: non-trauma acute cholecystitis

http://www.britannica.com/science/cholecystitis encyclopedia britannica cholecystitis

http://www.physio-pedia.com/cholecystitis physio pedia cholecystitis

https://online.epocrates.com/diseases/7811/cholecystitis/key-highlights epocrates cholecystitis

https://sonoworld.com/casedetails/perforated_emphysematous_cholecystitis_with_abscess_in_the_omental_bursa.aspx?caseid=471 sono world perforated emphysematous cholecystitis with abscess in the omental bursa

http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/c/cholecystitis/intro.htm right diagnosis cholecystitis

 

Research:

http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/4_dipak%20ladda.pdf dipak ladda. “bouveret's syndrome (case presentation)”. Journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2014; vol. 3, issue 04, january 27; page: 855-862, doi:10.14260/jemds/2014/1915

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2210261215004824 dual pathology—an unreported case by darren yap et al., international journal of surgery case reports volume 17, 2015, pages 164–166 doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.11.002

Hamdi j, hamdan oa. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2016 may 26];14:31-2. Available from: http://www.saudijgastro.com/text.asp?2008/14/1/31/37803

http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-6-40 impact of treatment policies on patient outcomes and resource utilization in acute cholecystitis in japanese hospitals by miho sekimoto et al., bmc health services researchbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20066:40 doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-40

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2210261214001369 acute acalculous cholecystitis (aac) in the pediatric population associated with epstein–barr virus (ebv) infection. Case report and review of the literature by fuad alkhoury,diego diaz, jesus hidalgo international journal of surgery case reports volume 11, 2015, pages 50–52 doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.06.006

http://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-7922-1-24 emergency laparoscopy – current best practice oliver warren,james kinross,paraskevas paraskeva and ara darzi world journal of emergency surgery20061:24 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-1-24

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-4-202 occult gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a primary ovarian tumor in two women: two case reports and a review of the literature by yashwant kumar,alka chahal,monika garg and anjali bhutani journal of medical case reports20104:202 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-202

http://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-7922-1-21 spontaneous biliary tract perforations: an unusual cause of peritonitis in pregnancy. Report of two cases and review of literature by nikhil talwar,manoj andley,bina ravi and ajay kumar world journal of emergency surgery20061:21 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-1-21

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1807-59322011000300009 what necessitates the conversion to open cholecystectomy? A retrospective analysis of 5164 consecutive laparoscopic operations by volkan genc et al., clinics vol.66 no.3 são paulo 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1807-59322011000300009

Mohamed ae, al karawi ma, ghandour z. Parasitic disease of the liver and biliary tree. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 1997 [cited 2016 may 26];3:22-8. Available from: http://www.saudijgastro.com/text.asp?1997/3/1/22/33941

http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/3-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-in-cirrhotic-patients-1584-9341-10-1-3.php?aid=25938 marius m. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. Journal of surgery [jurnalul de chirurgie] 2014; 10(1): 11-15. Doi:10.7438/1584-9341-10-1-3

http://www.medsci.org/v06p0374.htm udayakumar d, sanaullah m. Campylobacter cholecystitis. Int j med sci 2009; 6(6):374-375. Doi:10.7150/ijms.6.374. Available fromhttp://www.medsci.org/v06p0374.htm

Sanai f m, al-karawi m a. Biliary ascariasis: report of a complicated case and literature review. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2016 may 26];13:25-32. Available from: http://www.saudijgastro.com/text.asp?2007/13/1/25/30462

Ballal m, jyothi k n, antony b, arun c, prabhu t, shivananda p g. Bacteriological spectrum of cholecystitis and its antibiogram. Indian j med microbiol [serial online] 2001 [cited 2016 may 27];19:212-4. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2001/19/4/212/8193

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijh/2015/459608/ international journal of hepatology
volume 2015 (2015), article id 459608, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/459608 review article:acalculous acute cholecystitis in previously healthy children: general overview and analysis of pediatric infectious cases by dimitri poddighe et al.,

 

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