Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Cholecystitis (Greek, cholecyst-, "gallbladder", combined with the suffix -itis, "inflammation") is inflammation of the gallbladder. Although most people with gallstones do not have symptoms and will not go on to develop cholecystitis, cholecystitis occurs most commonly due to blockage of the cystic duct with gallstones (cholelithiasis). This blockage causes a buildup of bile in the gallbladder and increased pressure within the gallbladder, leading to right upper abdominal pain. Concentrated bile, pressure, and sometimes bacterial infection irritate and damage the gallbladder wall, causing inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder. Inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder can reduce normal blood flow to areas of the gallbladder, which can lead to cell death due to inadequate oxygen.

Risk factors for gallstones and cholecystitis are similar and include female sex, increasing age, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, obesity, diabetes mellitus, ethnicity (Native North American), rapid weight loss. Cholecystitis is diagnosed based on the characteristic symptoms of right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever as well as laboratory testing showing an increased white blood count. Abdominal ultrasound is typically also used in diagnosis. Uncomplicated cholecystitis has an excellent prognosis; however, more than 25% of patients require surgery or develop complications. Delayed diagnosis of acute cholecystitis increases morbidity and mortality. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis may present as a single episode or may recur on multiple occasions.


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Basic information: medline plus acute cholecystitis cholecystitis health line acute cholecystitis health line what is chronic cholecystitis? nhs uk acute cholecystitis msd manuals acute cholecystitis by ali a. Siddiqui, md cholecystitis every day health what is cholecystitis? mnt what is cholecystitis? What causes cholecystitis? cholecystitis newyork times cholecystitis nord cholecystitis your md cholecystitis,-acute/complications-of-acute-cholecystitis.html health service executive cholecystitis patient education center cholecystitis health link bc cholecystitis my health alberta ca what is cholecystitis?


Advanced information: medscape cholecystitis patient cholecystitis radiology info cholecystitis cholecystitis university of connecticut health center cholecystitis family practise notebook cholecystitis pathology outlines cholecystitis primary surgery: volume one: non-trauma acute cholecystitis encyclopedia britannica cholecystitis physio pedia cholecystitis epocrates cholecystitis sono world perforated emphysematous cholecystitis with abscess in the omental bursa right diagnosis cholecystitis


Research: dipak ladda. “bouveret's syndrome (case presentation)”. Journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2014; vol. 3, issue 04, january 27; page: 855-862, doi:10.14260/jemds/2014/1915 dual pathology—an unreported case by darren yap et al., international journal of surgery case reports volume 17, 2015, pages 164–166 doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.11.002

Hamdi j, hamdan oa. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2016 may 26];14:31-2. Available from: impact of treatment policies on patient outcomes and resource utilization in acute cholecystitis in japanese hospitals by miho sekimoto et al., bmc health services researchbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20066:40 doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-40 acute acalculous cholecystitis (aac) in the pediatric population associated with epstein–barr virus (ebv) infection. Case report and review of the literature by fuad alkhoury,diego diaz, jesus hidalgo international journal of surgery case reports volume 11, 2015, pages 50–52 doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.06.006 emergency laparoscopy – current best practice oliver warren,james kinross,paraskevas paraskeva and ara darzi world journal of emergency surgery20061:24 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-1-24 occult gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a primary ovarian tumor in two women: two case reports and a review of the literature by yashwant kumar,alka chahal,monika garg and anjali bhutani journal of medical case reports20104:202 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-202 spontaneous biliary tract perforations: an unusual cause of peritonitis in pregnancy. Report of two cases and review of literature by nikhil talwar,manoj andley,bina ravi and ajay kumar world journal of emergency surgery20061:21 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-1-21 what necessitates the conversion to open cholecystectomy? A retrospective analysis of 5164 consecutive laparoscopic operations by volkan genc et al., clinics vol.66 no.3 são paulo 2011

Mohamed ae, al karawi ma, ghandour z. Parasitic disease of the liver and biliary tree. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 1997 [cited 2016 may 26];3:22-8. Available from: marius m. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. Journal of surgery [jurnalul de chirurgie] 2014; 10(1): 11-15. Doi:10.7438/1584-9341-10-1-3 udayakumar d, sanaullah m. Campylobacter cholecystitis. Int j med sci 2009; 6(6):374-375. Doi:10.7150/ijms.6.374. Available from

Sanai f m, al-karawi m a. Biliary ascariasis: report of a complicated case and literature review. Saudi j gastroenterol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2016 may 26];13:25-32. Available from:

Ballal m, jyothi k n, antony b, arun c, prabhu t, shivananda p g. Bacteriological spectrum of cholecystitis and its antibiogram. Indian j med microbiol [serial online] 2001 [cited 2016 may 27];19:212-4. Available from: international journal of hepatology
volume 2015 (2015), article id 459608, 6 pages review article:acalculous acute cholecystitis in previously healthy children: general overview and analysis of pediatric infectious cases by dimitri poddighe et al.,


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