Cholecystitis (Greek, cholecyst-, "gallbladder", combined with the suffix -itis, "inflammation") is inflammation of the gallbladder. Although most people with gallstones do not have symptoms and will not go on to develop cholecystitis, cholecystitis occurs most commonly due to blockage of the cystic duct with gallstones (cholelithiasis). This blockage causes a buildup of bile in the gallbladder and increased pressure within the gallbladder, leading to right upper abdominal pain. Concentrated bile, pressure, and sometimes bacterial infection irritate and damage the gallbladder wall, causing inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder. Inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder can reduce normal blood flow to areas of the gallbladder, which can lead to cell death due to inadequate oxygen.
Risk factors for gallstones and cholecystitis are similar and include female sex, increasing age, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, obesity, diabetes mellitus, ethnicity (Native North American), rapid weight loss. Cholecystitis is diagnosed based on the characteristic symptoms of right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever as well as laboratory testing showing an increased white blood count. Abdominal ultrasound is typically also used in diagnosis. Uncomplicated cholecystitis has an excellent prognosis; however, more than 25% of patients require surgery or develop complications. Delayed diagnosis of acute cholecystitis increases morbidity and mortality. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis may present as a single episode or may recur on multiple occasions.
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http://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-7922-1-21 spontaneous biliary tract perforations: an unusual cause of peritonitis in pregnancy. Report of two cases and review of literature by nikhil talwar,manoj andley,bina ravi and ajay kumar world journal of emergency surgery20061:21 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-1-21
Ballal m, jyothi k n, antony b, arun c, prabhu t, shivananda p g. Bacteriological spectrum of cholecystitis and its antibiogram. Indian j med microbiol [serial online] 2001 [cited 2016 may 27];19:212-4. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2001/19/4/212/8193