Spasmodic torticollis is an extremely painful chronic neurological movement disorder causing the neck to involuntarily turn to the left, right, upwards, and/or downwards. Both agonist and antagonist muscles contract simultaneously during dystonic movement. Causes of the disorder are predominantly idiopathic. A small number of patients develop the disorder as a result of another disease. Most patients first experience symptoms midlife. The most common treatment for spasmodic torticollis is the use of botulinum toxin type A.
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http://bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2377-13-85 biomed central. Cervical dystonia: effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program; study design and protocol of a single blind randomized controlled trial by joost van den dool et al. Bmc neurologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201313:85doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-13-85
http://jn.physiology.org/content/108/11/2867 journals of neuro physiology. Relationships between neck muscle electromyography and three-dimensional head kinematics during centrally induced torsional head perturbations by farshad farshadmanesh et al. Journal of neurophysiology published 1 december 2012 vol. 108 no. 11, 2867-2883 doi: 10.1152/jn.00312.2012
http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3920073 europe pub med central. Asymmetric pallidal neuronal activity in patients with cervical dystonia by christian k. E. Moll et al. Front syst neurosci. 2014; 8: 15. Published online 2014 february 11. Doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00015
https://doaj.org/article/318ed76e3ecf4853aa9ea7ea6594735a directory of open access journals. Possibilities of the neurovisualization modern technologies for new understanding of a cervical dystonia pathogenesis by grigorieva v.n. Et al. Sovremennye tehnologii v medicine. 2010;2(1)39-44
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https://doaj.org/article/47b503eb1d114c3fa2b4aaa08f88ebeb directory of open access journals. Sonographic alteration of basal ganglia in different forms of primary focal dystonia: a cross-sectional study by ying zhang et al. Chinese medical journal. 2016;129(8)942-945 doi 10.4103/0366-6999.179792
https://doaj.org/article/9fe5b9588f4d464983a7052f9fd0684c directory of open access journals. Clinical and neurophysiological differences between right and left forms of cervical dystonia by a.g. Naryshkin et al. Journal of asymmetry. 2014;8(2)21-32 journal title: journal of asymmetry. Issn: 1999-6489
https://doaj.org/article/81bafa23d5cd430fbe2dc48210a6c1e6 directory of open access journals. Treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin in a patient with myasthenia gravis by marcia rubia r. Gonçalves et al. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 1999;57(3a)683-685 doi 10.1590/s0004-282x1999000400024