Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. Later symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection appears to be involved in the development of more than 90% of cases; most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer. Other risk factors include smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having many sexual partners, but these are less important. Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years. About 90% of cervical cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types. Diagnosis is typically by cervical screening followed by a biopsy. Medical imaging is then done to determine whether or not the cancer has spread.

HPV vaccines protect against between two and seven high-risk strains of this family of viruses and may prevent up to 90% of cervical cancers. As a risk of cancer still exists, guidelines recommend continuing regular Pap smears. Other methods of prevention include: having few or no sexual partners and the use of condoms. Cervical cancer screening using the Pap smear or acetic acid can identify precancerous changes which when treated can prevent the development of cancer. Treatment of cervical cancer may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Five year survival rates in the United States are 68%.Outcomes, however, depend very much on how early the cancer is detected.

Worldwide, cervical cancer is both the fourth-most common cause of cancer and the fourth-most common cause of death from cancer in women. In 2012, an estimated 528,000 cases of cervical cancer occurred, with 266,000 deaths. This is about 8% of the total cases and total deaths from cancer. About 70% of cervical cancers occur indeveloping countries. In low-income countries, it is the most common cause of cancer death. In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has dramatically reduced rates of cervical cancer. In medical research, the most famous cell lineknown as HeLa was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.webmd.com/cancer/cervical-cancer/cervical-cancer-topic-overview cervical cancer - topic overview

http://www.cancercenter.com/cervical-cancer/symptoms/ cervical cancer symptom

http://www.cancervic.org.au/about-cancer/cancer_types/cervical_cancer cervical cancer

http://www.healthline.com/health/cervical-cancer/symptoms healthline cancer cervix

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/basics/definition/con-20030522 definition

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/cancer-of-the-cervix canoe.com cancer of the cervix

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_cervical_cancer_overview cervical cancer

https://www.southerncross.co.nz/aboutthegroup/healthresources/medicallibrary/tabid/178/vw/1/itemid/199/cervical-cancer-causes-symptoms-treatment-prevention.aspx southern cross cervical cancer - causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention


Advanced information:

http://www.oncolink.org/types/article.cfm?c=179&id=8226 onco link cervical cancer: the basics

http://www.medicinenet.com/cervical_cancer/article.htm cervical cancer (cancer of the cervix)

http://patient.info/doctor/cervical-cancer-pro cervical cancer

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cancer-of-the-cervix/pages/treatment.aspx cervical cancer - treatment

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253513-overview cervical cancer

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@cah/@gen/documents/generalcontent/treating-cervical-cancer.pdf cancer research uk,cervical cancer treatment.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159821.php cervical cancer: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/cervical-cancer/stages cervical cancer

http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/cancers/fight-cervical-cancer/en/ screening as well as vaccination is essential in the fight against cervical cancer

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/carcinoma-of-the-cervix radiopedia.org carcinoma of the cervix

https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/gynecologic-tumors/cervical-cancer cervical cancer

http://www.esmo.org/guidelines/gynaecological-cancers/cervical-cancer european guidelines for medical oncology cervical cancer: esmo clinical practice guidelines by n.colombo et al

https://www.fredhutch.org/en/diseases/cervical-cancer.html fredhutch cervical cancer

http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign99.pdf scottish intercolligiate guidelines network, management of cervical cancer a national clinical guideline

http://www.cancerresearch.org/cancer-immunotherapy/impacting-all-cancers/cervical-cancer cancer research institute cervical cancer immunotherapy.

http://www.bccdc.ca/resource-gallery/documents/communicable-disease-manual/chapter%205%20-%20sti/ccspmanual_mar2013_small1.pdf bc cancer agency.screening for the cancer of the cervix.

http://www.hhs.gov/opa/pdfs/cervical-cancer-fact-sheet.pdf office of population affairs, cervical cancer fact sheet

http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/cervical-cancer university of maryland medical center cervical cancer

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cervical-cancer-treatment-early-stage-cancer-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: cervical cancer treatment; early stage cancer (beyond the basics)

http://www.rho.org/about-cervical-cancer.htm rho cervical cancer about cervical cancer



http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v105/n5/full/bjc2011301a.html british journal of cancertrends in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer incidence in mumbai, india over a 30-year period, 1976–2005: an age–period–cohort analysis by p k dhillon et al, british journal of cancer (2011) 105, 723–730. Doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.301

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v101/n5/full/6605224a.html britih journal of cancer differences in the risk of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection by education level by s franceschi et al.british journal of cancer (2009) 101, 865–870. Doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605224 www.bjcancer.com
published online 4 august 2009

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100427190943.htm bmj-british medical journal. "hpv test detects more pre-cancerous cells than conventional smear test." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 28 april 2010. .

American cancer society. "health groups issue cervical cancer screening guidelines." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 14 march 2012. Www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120314183348.htm

Cidrz foundation. "women with aids face cervical cancer threat." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 3 december 2007.Www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071130115652.htm

Bmj-british medical journal. "cervical, vaginal cancer higher in women previously treated for pre-cancerous cells on cervix, study finds." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 14 january 2014. Www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140114202924.htm

Journal of the national cancer institute. "hpv vaccines may reduce a wide range of genital diseases." sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 6 february 2010. Www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100205162951.htm .

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1309748 original article:improved survival with bevacizumab in advanced cervical cancer by krishnansu s. Tewari, m.d et al, n engl j med 2014; 370:734-743february 20, 2014doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1309748

http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i276 risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study by jiangrong wang et al bmj 2016; 352 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i276 (published 11 february 2016)

http://www.unipd.it/esterni/wwwginec/sito%20didattica/unita'%20operative/ginecologia%20oncologica/figo%202012%20cervix%20%20.pdfinternational journal of gynecology and obstetrics figo cancer report 2012:cancer of the cervix uteri by ericka wiebe, lynette denny , gillian thomas 119s2 (2012) s100–s109

http://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/microinvasive%20carcinoma%20of%20the%20cervix/item/229 micro invasive carcinoma cervix pfaendler, k, mwanahamuntu, m, et al, glob. Libr. Women's med.,(issn: 1756-2228) 2008; doi 10.3843/glowm.10229

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2213538315000077?np=y evaluation of the natural history of cancer of the cervix, implications for prevention. The cancer risk management model (crmm) – human papillomavirus and cervical components by anthony b. Miller et al.journal of cancer policy, volume 4, june 2015, pages 1–6 doi:10.1016/j.jcpo.2015.05.001

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2211338x13000628 uterine corpus metastasis in stage ia1 squamous carcinoma of the cervix by a. Mccormick,p. Cross,r.j. Edmondson gynecologic oncology case reports volume 6, november 2013, pages 31–33 doi:10.1016/j.gynor.2013.07.006

http://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6874-14-30 knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in kinshasa, the democratic republic of congo by catherine ali-risasi et al. Bmc women's healthbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201414:30 doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-14-30

Cancer of the cervix: early detection and cost-effective solutions by lynette denny et al http://www.ijgo.org/article/s0020-7292(15)00088-0/fulltext international journal of gynaecology and obstetrics october 2015volume 131, supplement 1, pages s28–s32 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.02.009

http://www.cancernetwork.com/review-article/recent-developments-chemoradiotherapy-locally-advanced-cancer-cervix recent developments in chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cancer of the cervixreview article | september 01, 2000 | cervical cancer by nina a. Mayr, md and anil k. Sood, mdsee more at: http://www.cancernetwork.com/review-article/recent-developments-chemoradiotherapy-locally-advanced-cancer-cervix#sthash.l1apfg2p.dpufv


Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervix cancer by jayne tierney.Doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd001774.pub2


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervicalcancer/detailedguide/cervical-cancer-key-statistics american cancer society.

http://www.jostrust.org.uk/about-cervical-cancer/cervical-cancer jo’s cervical cancer trust


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8cabchn3j4 cervical cancer

http://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical cervical cancer - did you know??

http://myfox8.com/2016/01/25/cervical-cancer-signs-and-symptoms/ cervical cancer: signs and symptoms posted 1:24 pm, january 25, 2016, by web staff

https://www.cancercare.on.ca/pcs/screening/cervscreening/ cervical cancer screening

http://www.ashasexualhealth.org/stdsstis/hpv/hpv-cervical-cancer/ american sexual health association, hpv & cervical cancer


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.nccc-online.org/images/pdfs/atlanta2013/l_ramondetta_cervix_cancer_101_nccn.pdf cervix cancer 101 lois m ramondetta m.d. Professor gynecologic oncology md anderson cancer center chief , division of gynecologic oncology lyndon baines johnson hospital houston texas

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/cervical-cancer/overview.html a lifesaving tool against cervical cancer remains underused by carol weeg

http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2009/pdfs/pr195.pdf hpv screening for cervical cancer in rural india saves women’s lives press release by international agency for cancer research

http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/daily-checkup-cervical-cancer-challenges-article-1.2481864 daily checkup: cervical cancer’s increasingly prevented, but still remains a threat to women around the globe by katie charles new york daily news sunday, january 10, 2016, 2:00 am

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