Cardiac arrest, also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively or at all. Medical personnel may refer to an unexpected cardiac arrest as a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).
A cardiac arrest is different from (but may be caused by) a myocardial infarction (also known as a heart attack), where blood flow to the muscle of the heart is impaired such that part or all of the heart tissue dies. It is different from congestive heart failure, where circulation is substandard, but the heart is still pumping sufficient blood to sustain life.
Arrested blood circulation prevents delivery of oxygen and glucose to the body. Lack of oxygen and glucose to the brain causes loss of consciousness, which then results in abnormal or absent breathing. Brain injury is likely to happen if cardiac arrest goes untreated for more than five minutes. For the best chance of survival and neurological recovery immediate treatment is important.
Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency that, in certain situations, is potentially reversible if treated early. Unexpected cardiac arrest can lead to death within minutes: this is called sudden cardiac death (SCD). The treatment for cardiac arrest is immediate defibrillation if a "shockable" rhythm is present, while cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is used to provide circulatory support and/or to induce a "shockable" rhythm.
A number of heart conditions and non-heart-related events can cause cardiac arrest; the most common cause is coronary artery disease.
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https://soap.org/cpr-consensus-statment.pdf the society for obstetric anesthesia and perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy by steven lipman, md et al., anesthesia & analgesia. May 2014 • volume 118 • number 5
http://sjtrem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-7241-20-75 incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature by markus b skrifvars and michael j parr scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine201220:75 doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-75
http://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i1653 defibrillation time intervals and outcomes of cardiac arrest in hospital: retrospective cohort study from get with the guidelines-resuscitation registry bmj 2016;353:i1653