Carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. Therefore, CEA is usually present only at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults. However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as atumor marker in clinical tests. Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers. CEA are glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) cell surface anchored glycoproteins whose specialized sialofucosylated glycoforms serve as functional colon carcinoma L-selectin and E-selectin ligands, which may be critical to the metastatic dissemination of colon carcinoma cells. Immunologically they are characterized as members of the CD66 cluster of differentiation.
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http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1075.html serum tumor markers greg l. Perkins, m.d., evan d. Slater, m.d., georganne k. Sanders, m.d., and john g. Prichard, m.d., ventura county medical center, ventura, california am fam physician. 2003 sep 15;68(6):1075-1082.
http://www.pnas.org/content/72/11/4602.full.pdf proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Usa vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 4602-4606, november 1975 medical sciences carcinoembryonic antigen: evidence for multiple antigenic determinants and isoantigens(carcinoembryonic isoantigens/variations in carcinoembryonic antigen standards/radioimmunoassay) by rudolf vrba, elliot alpert, and kurt j. Isselbacher
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/28/1/160.full.pdf are serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels associated with carotid atherosclerosis in japanese men? By nobukazu ishizaka, yuko ishizaka, ei-ichi toda, kazuhiko koike, minoru yamakado, ryozo nagai arterioscler thromb vasc biol 2008;28:160-165.)
http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?gm07026 serum carcinoembryonic antigen level as a predictive marker for distant metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer by ahmet ursavas et al., eur j gen med 2007;4(3):107-114
http://www.annclinlabsci.org/content/8/1/4.full.pdf current status of carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) and cea-s assays in the evaluation of neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract by r. M. Nakamura, m.d., e. F. Plow, ph.d. And t. S. Edgington, m.d. Annals of clinical and laboratory science, vol. 8, no. 1
http://jcb.rupress.org/content/137/4/939.full.pdf carcinoembryonic antigen, a human tumor marker,cooperates with myc and bcl-2 in cellular transformation by robert a. Screaton et al., the journal of cell biology, volume 137, number 4, may 19, 1997 939–952
http://drg-international.com/ifu/eia-4096.pdf cea (eia-4096)revised 21 feb 2006 fro intended use the quantitative determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) concentration in human serum by a microplate immunoenzymometric assay.(for research use only)
https://core.ac.uk/download/files/454/12167925.pdf carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: molecular biology and clinical perspectives by john a. Thompson, fritz grunert, and wolfgang zimmermann. Journal of clinical laboratory analysis 5344-366 (1 991)