botulism
18
Botulism

Botulism

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Botulism

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever.

Botulism can be spread several different ways. The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. Foodborne botulism happens when food containing the toxin is eaten. Infant botulism happens when the bacteria develops in the intestines and releases the toxin. This typically only occurs in children less than six months old, as protective mechanisms develop after that time. Wound botulism is found most often among those who inject street drugs. In this situation, spores enter a wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed directly between people. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding the toxin or bacteria in the person in question.

Prevention is primarily by proper food preparation. The toxin, though not the organism, is destroyed by heating it to more than 85 °C (185 °F) for longer than 5 minutes. Honey can contain the organism, and for this reason, honey should not be fed to children under 12 months. Treatment is with an antitoxin. In those who lose their ability to breathe on their own, mechanical ventilation may be necessary for months. Antibiotics may be used for wound botulism. Death occurs in 5 to 10% of people. Botulism can affect many other animals. The word is from Latin, botulus, meaning sausage.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/botulism/basics/definition/con-20025875 mayoclinic botulisms

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000598.htm medline plus botulism

https://www.cdc.gov/botulism/ cdc botulism

http://www.healthline.com/health/botulism health line botulism

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/botulism.html kids health botulism

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/botulism/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk botulism

http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/botulism-topic-overview#1 web md botulism

http://www.foodborneillness.com/botulism_food_poisoning/ food borne illness botulism

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/botulism better health botulism

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/infections/pages/botulism.aspx healthy children botulism

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthlinkbc-files/home-canning-avoid-botulism health link bc home canning - how to avoid botulism

https://www.fsai.ie/faqs/botulism.html botulism

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/anaerobic-bacteria/botulism merck manuals botulism

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/botulism university of maryland medical center botulism

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/botulism/overview.html newyork times botulism

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ccc/botulism/ life in the fast lane botulism

http://www.everydayhealth.com/botulism/guide/ every day health what is botulism?

 

Advanced information:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs270/en/ who botulism

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/213311-overview medscape botulism

https://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/botulism/ food safety botulism

http://www.medicinenet.com/botulism/article.htm medicine net botulism

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/173943.php medical news today what is botulism (botulinus intoxication)? What causes botulism?

http://patient.info/doctor/botulism.htm patient botulism

http://neuromuscular.wustl.edu/nother/bot.htm botulism

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1388.html infant botulism, nadine cox, m.d., and randy hinkle, d.o., mount carmel medical center, columbus, ohio am fam physician. 2002 apr 1;65(7):1388-1393.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/id/neuro/btlsm.htm family practise note book botulism

http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage-making/meat-safety/botulism botulism

http://www.aanem.org/patients/disorders/botulism american association of neuromuscular & electrodiagnostic medicine botulism

https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/botulism/ national organisation of rare diseases botulism

 

Research:

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc2533696&blobtype=pdf : kumaran d, rawat r, ahmed sa, swaminathan s (2008) substrate binding mode and its implication on drug design for botulinum neurotoxin a. Plos pathog 4(9): e1000165. Doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000165

Vahdani p, abbasi f, mojarad ma, velayati aa, boloorsaz mr, musavipour f, vahdani g. A six month-old girl with botulism due to honey ingestion. Indian j pathol microbiol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 nov 24];52:592. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2009/52/4/592/56139

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc2883556&blobtype=pdf : scotcher mc, cheng lw, stanker lh (2010) detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype b at sub mouse ld50 levels by a sandwich immunoassay and its application to toxin detection in milk. Plos one 5(6): e11047. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011047

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4177856&blobtype=pdf skarin h, segerman b (2014) plasmidome interchange between clostridium botulinum, clostridium novyi and clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens. Plos one 9(9): e107777. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107777

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2015.00159/full original research article front. Cell. Neurosci., 23 april 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2015.00159 accelerated intoxication of gabaergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin a disinhibits stem cell-derived neuron networks prior to network silencing by phillip h. Beske et al.,

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2010/974943/ yukako fujinaga, “interaction of botulinum toxin with the epithelial barrier,” journal of biomedicine and biotechnology, vol. 2010, article id 974943, 9 pages, 2010. Doi:10.1155/2010/974943

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc2092393&blobtype=pdf smith tj, hill kk, foley bt, detter jc, munk ac, et al (2007) analysis of the neurotoxin complex genes in clostridium botulinum a1-a4 and b1 strains: bont/a3, /ba4 and /b1 clusters are located within plasmids. Plos one 2(12): e1271. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001271

Tirado-sanchez a, ponce-olivera rm. Botulism-like syndrome without cholinergic involvement: a case report and two recommendations to avoid it. Indian j dermatol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2016 nov 24];52:163-4. Available from: http://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2007/52/3/163/35355

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00287/full mini review article front. Microbiol., 11 june 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00287 botulism outbreaks in natural environments – an update by mari espelund et al.,

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3531519&blobtype=pdf restani l, giribaldi f, manich m, bercsenyi k, menendez g, et al. (2012) botulinum neurotoxins a and e undergo retrograde axonal transport in primary motor neurons. Plos pathog 8(12): e1003087. Doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003087

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc2928723&blobtype=pdf : mazuet c, dano j, popoff mr, cre´minon c, volland h (2010) characterization of botulinum neurotoxin type a neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and influence of their half-lives on therapeutic activity. Plos one 5(8): e12416. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012416

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/neurological/c_dg_botulism pet md botulism in dogs

http://www.aaep.org/info/botulism american association of equine practitioners botulism

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/generalized_conditions/clostridial_diseases/botulism.html the merck veterinary manual botulism

http://www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/19/botulism/ the poulty site botulism

http://www.thepigsite.com/diseaseinfo/17/botulism/ the pig site botulism

http://www.thecattlesite.com/diseaseinfo/251/botulism/ the cattle site botulism

https://www.vetary.com/cat/condition/botulism vetary botulism

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ox97penrbwc botulism

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2jpwadyb2pc botulism

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjd_0gjkrey clostridium botulinum infection

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bubquuspgs clostridium botulinum - animated quick review

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fszt-n8eypw clostridium botulinum, difficile, perfringens, tetani - nbde & usmle

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/12/how-not-to-die-of-botulism/281649/ the atlantic how not to die of botulism

http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/661016/botulism-what-is-deadly-food-poisoning-disease-symptoms-cause-clostridium-botulinum express what is botulism? How to spot the deadly food poisoning disease

http://abc7ny.com/health/race-against-time-to-save-baby-diagnosed-with-botulism/192894/ abc7ny race against time to save baby diagnosed with botulism

Please leave your comments:



Related Articles