Blood groups

Blood groups

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Blood groups

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele(or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones areABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, - or Null denoting RhD status).

Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from their own, which is not a problem. What can matter is whether the baby is RhD positive or negative. Mothers who are RhD- and carry a RhD+ baby can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood countsthat ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

Http:// american red cross blood types

Http:// nhs uk blood groups

Http:// kids health blood types

Https:// blood groups

Http:// what are blood groups

Https:// better health blood groups

Https:// irish blood transfusion service blood types

Https:// medline plus blood typing

Http:// health line blood typing

Http:// what's the most common blood type?


Advanced information:

Http:// patient blood grouping (typing)

Http:// blood groups and red cell antigens [internet].

Http:// blood type o

Http:// web md blood type test

Http:// blood types tutorial

Http:// blood racial & ethnic distribution of abo blood types

Https:// lab tests online blood typing

Http:// transfusion guidelines basics of blood groups and antibodies

Http:// medical news today what are the human blood group systems? What is a blood transfusion?

Http:// mayo clinic is there a universal blood donor type?

Http:// scitable paternity testing: blood types and dna



Http:// the relationship between blood groups and disease by david. J. Anstee blood 2010 115:4635-4643; doi:10.1182/blood-2010-01-261859

Http:// the intriguing relationship between the abo blood group, cardiovascular disease, and cancer by massimo franchini and giuseppe lippi bmc medicine201513:7 doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0250-y

Http:// distribution of abo blood groups and rhesus factor in a large scale study of different cities and ethnicities in khuzestan province, iran by j. Torabizade maatoghi et al., egyptian journal of medical human genetics volume 17, issue 1, january 2016, pages 105–109

Http:// abo blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis by zhuo chen et al., scientific reports 6, article number: 23250 (2016)doi:10.1038/srep23250


Other articles:

Https:// uc davis veterinary medicine ab blood group in felines

Http:// merck veterinary manuals blood groups and blood transfusions in dogs


Related videos:

Https:// blood types

Https:// blood type (abo and rh) made simple!

Https:// blood types - the easy way to remember (about 11mins)

Https:// understanding abo blood typing - usmle step 1 tutorial

Https:// genetics of abo blood group

Https:// bombay blood group - a rare blood group!!

Https:// rh blood group


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

Http:// bbc more than a century after their discovery, we still don’t know what blood groups like o, a and b are for. Do they really matter? Carl zimmer investigates.

Http:// medical daily why is ab blood type so rare? It’s all about the red blood cells

Http:// scientific american blood type matters for brain health

Http:// daily mail are you an a, b or o - or even a duffy? Why you should know your blood type

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Http:// hindu bombay blood: how the rare blood type was discovered

Http:// times of india food guide according to your blood type

Http:// the hindustan times india’s rarest blood groups make transfusions a challenging affair

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