Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the epithelial lining (i.e., the urothelium) of the urinary bladder. Rarely the bladder is involved by non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma, but these are not ordinarily included in the colloquial term "bladder cancer." It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder.
The most common type of bladder cancer recapitulates the normal histology of the urothelium and is known as transitional cell carcinoma or more properly urothelial cell carcinoma. Five-year survival rates in the United States are around 77%.
Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer with 430,000 new casesand 165,000 deaths occurring in 2012.
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dong wx, ping yx, liang wc, jian lz, lin zj. small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature. j can res ther [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 may 17];9:151-3. available from: http://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2013/9/1/151/110372
http://www.ijmbr.com/reviewed/2.3.5.pdf review article int j med biomed res 2013;2(3):186 -194 186 a review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer by miakhil , parker s.g, kommu s.s, nethercliffe j
viveka b k, amirtham u, kumar vm, babu gk. a case of synchronous double malignancy: invasive bladder cancer and leiomyosarcoma of extremity and review of literature. south asian j cancer [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 may 17];2:152. available from: http://journal.sajc.org/text.asp?2013/2/3/152/114140
purohit cn, bui mm, hakam a. fine needle aspiration biopsy of an osteoclast-rich undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma: a cytology case report and review of the literature. cytojournal [serial online] 2010 [cited 2016 may 17];7:18. available from: http://www.cytojournal.com/text.asp?2010/7/1/18/70407