Bacterial meningits

Bacterial meningits

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Bacterial meningits

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.

The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency. A lumbar puncture diagnoses or excludes meningitis. A needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that envelops the brain and spinal cord. The CSF is examined in a medical laboratory.

Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines. Giving antibiotics to people with significant exposure to certain types of meningitis may also be useful. The first treatment in acute meningitis consists of promptly giving antibiotics and sometimes antiviral drugs. Corticosteroids can also be used to prevent complications from excessive inflammation. Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, or cognitive deficits, especially if not treated quickly.

In 2013 meningitis occurred in about 16 million people worldwide. This resulted in 303,000 deaths – down from 464,000 deaths in 1990. With appropriate treatment the risk of death in bacterial meningitis is less than 15%.Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur between December and June each year in an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt. Smaller outbreaks may also occur in other areas of the world. The word meningitis is from Greek µ????? méninx, "membrane" and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation".


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Basic information: cdc bacterial meningitis cleveland clinic bacterial meningitis health line bacterial meningitis: causes and how it’s spread mayo clinic symptoms and causes web md understanding meningitis -- the basics,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/meningitis/acute-bacterial-meningitis msd manuals acute bacterial meningitis medline plus meningitis voice of meningitis types of meningitis nhs uk meningitis bacterial meningitis my vmc bacterial meningitis life in the fastlane bacterial meningitis better health meningitis university ofmatyland medical center meningitis


Advanced information: medscape pediatric bacterial meningitis emedicine health meningitis in adults patient meningitis medicalnews today meningitis: causes, symptoms and treatments cochrane corticosteroids for bacterial meningitis who meningococcal meningitis what is bacterial meningitis? bacterial meningitis national organisatiom for rare diseases meningitis, bacterial newsmedical scientists uncover how microbes invade the brain in bacterial meningitis radiopedia pyogenic meningitis


Research: roger chirurgi and samrina kahlon, “isolated torticollis may present as an atypical presentation of meningitis,” case reports in emergency medicine, vol. 2012, article id 193543, 2 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/193543

mohammadi sf, patil ab, nadagir sd, nandihal n, lakshminarayana s a. diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 nov 24];16:645-9. available from: stork m, grijpstra j, bos mp, man˜ as torres c, devos n, et al. (2013) zinc piracy as a mechanism of neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity. plos pathog 9(10): e1003733. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003733

ghosh d, gupta p, prabhakar s. systemic brucellosis with chronic meningitis : a case report. neurol india [serial online] 1999 [cited 2016 nov 24];47:58-60. available from: meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period by maria n theodoridou et al., bmc infectious diseases20077:101 doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-101 characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model by barry mook-kanamori et al., bmc infectious diseases201212:71 doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-71 vuong j, collard j-m, whaley mj, bassira i, seidou i, diarra s, et al. (2016) development of real-time pcr methods for the detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens without dna extraction. plos one 11(2): e0147765. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147765

amara b, boujraf s, benzagmout m, labib s, harandou m. spontaneous pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis. j global infect dis [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 nov 24];5:179-82. available from: blockade of nmda receptor subtype nr2b prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats by anna kolarova etal.,, bmc neuroscience20034:21 doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-4-21 gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis by roney s coimbra et al, bmc biology20064:15 doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-4-15 predicting sequelae and death after bacterial meningitis in childhood: a systematic review of prognostic studies by rogier cj de jonge et al., bmc infectious diseases201010:232 doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-232 practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis by allan r. tunkel et al., clin infect dis. (2004) 39 (9):1267-1284.doi: 10.1086/425368 hoffman o, weber rj. pathophysiology and treatment of bacterial meningitis.therapeutic advances in neurological disorders. 2009;2(6):1-7. doi:10.1177/1756285609337975. bacterial meningitis in the united states, 1998–2007 by michael c. thigpen, m.d., et al., n engl j med 2011; 364:2016-2025may 26, 2011doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1005384


Other articles: meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningomyelitis in dogs


Other helpful resources(support groups): meningitis research foundation the meningitis foundation bacterial meningitis


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: facts about bacterial meningitis for gay men in san francisco essex county toddler dies of bacterial meningitis the vaccine, says meningitis survivor kyla winters self this 21-year-old died from bacterial meningitis she thought was a hangover daily mail my life is just beginning': brave 21-year-old who lost four limbs and over half of her skin to bacterial meningitis becomes instagram star after inspiring thousands with her courageous story

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