atrial-fibrillation
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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating. Often it starts as brief periods of abnormal beating which become longer and possibly constant over time. Most episodes have no symptoms. Occasionally there may be heart palpitations, fainting, shortness of breath, or chest pain. The disease increases the risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke. It is a type of supraventricular tachycardia.

Hypertension and valvular heart disease are the most common alterable risk factors for AF. Other heart-related risk factors include heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease. In the developing world valvular heart disease often occurs as a result of rheumatic fever. Lung-related risk factors includeCOPD, obesity, and sleep apnea. Other factors include excess alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus, andthyrotoxicosis. However, half of cases are not associated with one of these risks. A diagnosis is made by feeling the pulse and may be confirmed using an electrocardiogram (ECG). A typical ECG in afib shows no P waves and an irregular ventricular rate.

AF is often treated with medications to slow the heart rate to a near normal range (known as rate control) or to convert the rhythm to normal sinus rhythm (known as rhythm control). Electrical cardioversion can also be used to convert AF to a normal sinus rhythm and is often used emergently if the person is unstable. Ablation may prevent recurrence in some people. Depending on the risk of stroke either aspirin or anti-clotting medications such as warfarin or a novel oral anticoagulant may be recommended. While these medications reduce this risk, they increase rates of major bleeding.

Atrial fibrillation is the most common serious abnormal heart rhythm. In Europe and North America, as of 2014, it affects about 2% to 3% of the population.[2] This is an increase from 0.4 to 1% of the population around 2005. In thedeveloping world about 0.6% of males and 0.4% of females are affected. The percentage of people with AF increases with age with 0.14% under 50 years old, 4% between 60 and 70 years old, and 14% over 80 years old being affected. A-fib and atrial flutter resulted in 112,000 deaths in 2013, up from 29,000 in 1990. The first known report of an irregular pulse was by Jean-Baptiste de Sénac in 1749. This was first documented by ECG in 1909 by Thomas Lewis.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atrial-fibrillation/home/ovc-20164923 overview

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/atrial-fibrillation/pages/introduction.aspx atrial fibrillation

http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikiqlcmwjte/b.5052135/k.2c86/heart_disease__atrial_fibrillation.htm heart and stroke foundation atrial fibrillation

http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/atrial-fibrillation/ atrial fibrillation

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/heart-conditions-atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

http://www.everydayhealth.com/atrial-fibrillation/guide/ atrial fibrillation

https://www.ottawaheart.ca/heart-condition/atrial-fibrillation university of ottawa,heart institute atrial fibrillation

http://www.medtronic.com/us-en/patients/conditions/atrial-fibrillation-afib.html metronic atrial fibrillation

http://www.healthline.com/health/living-with-atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/atrial-fibrillation-aug06.pdf atrial fibrillation

https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/blood-heart-circulation/atrial-fibrillation.html atrial fibrillation

http://www.michaelrowecardiologist.com.au/atrial-fibrillation-michael-rowe.html michael rowe atrial fibrillation

https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/a/atrial-fibrillation/treating-atrial-fibrillation.html health service executive atrial fibrillation

https://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/atrial_fibrillation/ atrial fibrillation

http://www.cardiachealth.org/atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/atrial_fibrillation/article.htm atrial fibrillation

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151066-overview atrial fibrillation

http://patient.info/health/atrial-fibrillation-leaflet atrial fibrillation

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/cardiology/atrial-fibrillation/ atrial fibrillation

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/atrial-fibrillation-beyond-the-basics atrial fibrillation

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/arrhythmias-and-conduction-disorders/atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

http://www.afibmatters.org/about-atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/atrial_fibrillation/article_em.htm atrial fibrillation

https://www.acc.org/tools-and-practice-support/clinical-toolkits/atrial-fibrillation-afib american college of cardiology af tool kit atrial fibrillation

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/atrial-fibrillation/ life in the fast lane atrial fibrillation

http://www.uchospitals.edu/specialties/heart/services/arrhythmias/atrial-fibrillation/surgery.html the university of chicago medicine atrial fibrillation

http://www.strokeassociation.org/strokeorg/lifeafterstroke/healthylivingafterstroke/understandingriskyconditions/when-the-beat-is-off---atrial-fibrillation_ucm_310782_article.jsp#.vyq9tfl97cs atrial fibrillation

http://www.fpnotebook.com/cv/ekg/atrlfbrltn.htm family practice note book atrial fibrillation

http://www.practicalclinicalskills.com/ekg-reference-guide-details.aspx?lessonid=11 practical clinical skills atrial fibrillation

http://www.healio.com/cardiology/learn-the-heart/cardiology-review/atrial-fibrillation haelio atrial fibrillation

http://www.icd10data.com/icd10cm/codes/i00-i99/i30-i52/i48-/i48.91 atrial fibrillation

https://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/358/1559/atrial-fibrillation-report-130628.pdf comparative effectiveness reviewnumber 119 treatment of atrial fibrillation

http://www.britannica.com/science/atrial-fibrillation encyclopedia britanica atrial fibrillation

http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/health/practitioner-professional-resources/bc-guidelines/atrial-fibrillation british columbia atrial fibrillation

http://iucpq.qc.ca/sites/default/files/fa_module2-eng-full.pdf heart and stroke foundation,canadian cardiovascular society your complete guide to atrial fibrillation managing atrial fibrillation (af) (module 2)

http://www.bpac.org.nz/bpj/2011/october/af.aspx management of atrial fibrillation in general practice

https://www.acponline.org/acp_news/misc/video/atriall_fib.pdf atrial fibrillation

https://www.stjoesannarbor.org/documents/mhvi/clinicalreferences/atrial_fibrillationdg.pdf atrial fibrillation:manual of clinical guidelines

http://www.nhsiq.nhs.uk/media/2566025/af_economic_analysis_final.pdf costs and benefits of antithrombotic therapyin atrialfibrillation in england:an economic analysisbasedon grasp-af marion kerr insight health economicsfor nhsimproving quality

http://www.asth.org.au/downloads/report-anticoagulation.pdf australian government – dept of health and aging review of anticoagulation therapies in atrial fibrillation

 

Research:

https://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/ehj/31/19/2369.full.pdf guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation the task force for the management of atrial fibrillation of the european society of cardiology (esc) european heart journal (2010) 31, 2369–2429 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq278

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1311376 original article:atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke by david j. gladstone,

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/117/20/e340.full cardiology patient page:a patient’s guide to living with atrial fibrillation by julie b. shea et al circulation.2008; 117: e340-e343 doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.108.780577

uppsala university. "new app improves treatment of atrial fibrillation." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 4 april 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160404111245.htm .

http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1854230#tab1 2014 aha/acc/hrs guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary. a report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines and the heart rhythm society by craig t. january, md, phd, facc j am coll cardiol. 2014;64(21):2246-2280. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.021

http://medind.nic.in/jac/t03/i3/jact03i3p213.pdf atrial fibrillation :present treatment protocols by drugs and interventions by indranill basu ray jiacm 2003; 4(3): 213-27

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0735109704017437 drug-induced atrial fibrillation by cornelis s. van der hooft et al, journal of the american college of cardiology volume 44, issue 11, 7 december 2004, pages 2117–2124

http://www.ajconline.org/article/s0002-9149(13)01288-5/fulltext estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the u.s. adult population by susan colilla, phd, mph et al.the american journal of cardiology october 15, 2013volume 112, issue 8, pages 1142–1147 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.05.063

http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/fulltext/2015/05000/ce___atrial_fibrillation___updated_management.20.aspx ajn, american journal of nursing:may 2015 - volume 115 - issue 5 - p 26–38 doi: 10.1097/01.naj.0000465028.05223.39 ce: atrial fibrillation: updated management guidelines and nursing implications by cutugno, christine l. phd, rn

http://thyroidresearchjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-6614-2-4 the mechanisms of atrial fibrillation in hyperthyroidism by agata bielecka-dabrowa,dimitri p mikhailidis,jacek rysz and maciej banach thyroid research20092:4 doi: 10.1186/1756-6614-2-4

http://www.omim.org/entry/607554 atrial fibrillation, familial, 3; atfb3

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/46315 recent advances in the molecular pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation by reza wakili et al., volume 121, issue 8 (august 1, 2011)
j clin invest. 2011;121(8):2955–2968. doi:10.1172/jci46315

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2012.00296/full review article front. physiol., 03 august 2012 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00296 an introduction to murine models of atrial fibrillation by genna riley et al

http://www.neurology.org/content/82/8/716.full special article:summary of evidence-based guideline update: prevention of stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation report of the guideline development subcommittee of the american academy of neurology by antonio culebras, md, faan, faha et al doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.0000000000000145neurology february 25, 2014 vol. 82 no. 8 716-724

http://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/77273/fullreport-hta17360.pdf echocardiography in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients: a systematic review and economic evaluation by el simpson, md stevenson, a scope, e poku, j minton and p evans health technology assessment:volume 17 issue 36 august 2013 issn 1366-5278

http://electrophysiology.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=2277227#methods new research paper | march 2015 effect of obstructive sleep apnea treatment on atrial fibrillation recurrencea meta-analysis by ashish shukla, md, mph et al., jacccep. 2015;1(1):41-51. doi:10.1016/j.jacep.2015.02.014

http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/quality-of-life-exemplified-through-patients-living-with-atrial-fibrillation-2167-1168-3-150.php?aid=25797 høgh v, delmar c, riahi s, frederiksen k (2014) quality of life - exemplified through patients living with atrial fibrillation. j nurs care 3:150. doi:10.4172/2167-1168.1000150

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.cd012088/full efficacy and safety of ablation for patients with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by, guy amit et al. cochrane database of systematic reviews 2016, issue 2. art. no.: cd012088. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd012088.

http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/full/10.1148/rg.23si035513 perioperative cross-sectional imaging:percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation: the role of cross-sectional imaging by benoit ghaye, md et al.,rsna radiographics october 2003 volume 23, issue suppl_1 special issue

http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1887/235 analysis of atrial fibrillation: from electrocardiogram signal processing to clinical management by leif sörnmo et al., doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0162 january 2009 volume: 367 issue: 1887

 

Related topics:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/cardiovascular/c_dg_atrial_fibrillation_atrial_flutter heart beat problems (fibrillation and flutter) in dogs

http://largeanimal.vethospitals.ufl.edu/hospital-services/cardiology/atrial-fibrillation-in-horses/ large animal hospital atrial fibrillation in horses

 

Other articles:

http://www.afibrisk.org/ risk assessment tool

http://www.mdcalc.com/chads2-score-for-atrial-fibrillation-stroke-risk/

http://www.sparctool.com/ sparc - stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation risk tool

https://www.qxmd.com/calculate/calculator_106/bleeding-risk-in-atrial-fibrillation-has-bled-score bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation: has-bled score

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.afa-international.org/ atrial fibrillation association

 

Related videos:

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/af what is atrial fibrillation?

http://watchlearnlive.heart.org/cvml_player.php?moduleselect=atrfib atrial fibrillation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyqjpqf_eme an overview of atrial fibrillation

https://acls-algorithms.com/rhythms/atrial-fibrillation/ atrial fibrillation

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system-diseases/dysrhythmias-and-tachycardias/v/atrial-fibrillation atrial fibrillation

http://www.beaumont.edu/heart/centers-programs/atrial-fibrillation-clinic/ atrial fibrillation

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