Artificial Insemination

Artificial Insemination

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is a common practice in animal breeding, including dairy cattle (see Frozenf bovine semen) and pigs.

Artificial insemination may employ assisted reproductive technology, sperm donation and animal husbandry techniques. Artificial insemination techniques available include intracervical insemination and intrauterine insemination. The primary beneficiaries of artificial insemination are heterosexual couples suffering from male infertility, lesbian couples and single women. Intracervical insemination (ICI) is the easiest and most common insemination technique and can be used in the home for self-insemination without medical practitioner assistance. Compared to natural insemination (i.e., insemination by sexual intercourse), artificial insemination can be more expensive and more invasive, and may require professional assistance.

There are laws in some countries which restrict and regulate who can donate sperms and who is able to receive artificial insemination, and the consequences of such insemination. Subject to any regulations restricting who can obtain donor sperms, donor sperms are available to all women who, for whatever reason, want or need them. Some women living in a jurisdiction which does not permit artificial insemination in the circumstance in which she finds herself may travel to another jurisdiction which permits it. (See Sperm donation laws by country and fertility tourism.)


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: web md infertility and artificial insemination nhs uk artificial insemination doc shop artificial insemination mayoclinic intrauterine insemination (iui)


Advanced information: medical news today what is artificial insemination? why is artificial insemination used? history of human artificial insemination by willem ombelet, johan van robays. f, v & v in obgyn, 2010, monograph: 1-5 insemination parents fertility treatment options health service executive artificial insemination legal servies india artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization and challenges caused to legal system

kobe university. "world's first successful artificial insemination of southern rockhopper penguin." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 28 june 2016. . artificial insemination and the presumption of parenthood: traditional foundations and modern applications for lesbian mothers by william m. lopez. the use of artificial insemination in dairy farms in urban/peri-urban kampala, uganda – a study of knowledge, attitude and practices by camilla eklundh



nixon b, bromfield eg, dun md, redgrove ka, mclaughlin ea, aitken r j. the role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein a2 (hspa2) in regulating human sperm-egg recognition. asian j androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 10];17:568-73. available from: - doi: 10.4103/1008-682x.151395

leahy t, gadella bm. new insights into the regulation of cholesterol efflux from the sperm membrane. asian j androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 10];17:561-7. available from: - doi: 10.4103/1008-682x.153309

cerezales sp, boryshpolets s, eisenbach m. behavioral mechanisms of mammalian sperm guidance . asian j androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 10];17:628-32. available from: - doi: 10.4103/1008-682x.154308

da silva n, smith tb. exploring the role of mononuclear phagocytes in the epididymis. asian j androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 10];17:591-6. available from: - doi: 10.4103/1008-682x.153540

o'flaherty c. redox regulation of mammalian sperm capacitation. asian j androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 10];17:583-90. available from: - doi: 10.4103/1008-682x.153303 results of 6139 artificial insemination cycles with donor spermatozoa by a. botchan et al., hum. reprod. (2001) 16 (11):2298-2304.doi: 10.1093/humrep/16.11.2298


Other articles: multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (moet) in camels: an overview by binoy s. vettical et al., asian pacific journal of reproduction volume 5, issue 2, april 2016, pages 102–104 doi:10.1016/j.apjr.2016.01.003 first results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in macedonia by ljupche kochoski et al., mac vet rev 2015; 38 (1): 107-111,%205(5)%20125-137,%202015.pdf : mekuriaw g and kebede a, 2015. a review on indigenous cattle genetic resources in ethiopia: adaptation, status and survival. online j. anim. feed res., 5(5): 125-137. cui hong zheng, ming min zhang, guang ying huang, and wei wang, “the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology,” evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, vol. 2012, article id 543924, 15 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/543924 review on mechanisms of dairy summer infertility and implications for hormonal intervention by b.u. wakayo et al., open veterinary journal, (2015), vol. 5(1): 6-10 effect of different extenders and storage periods on motility and fertility of ram sperm by rossen georgiev stefanov et al., mac vet rev 2015; 38 (1): 85-89 recent advances on synchronization of ovulation in goats, out of season, for a more sustainable production by j. simões asian pacific journal of reproduction volume 4, issue 2, june 2015, pages 157-165 doi:10.1016/s2305-0500(15)30014-2 zamira gibb and robert j. aitken, “the impact of sperm metabolism during in vitro storage: the stallion as a model,” biomed research international, vol. 2016, article id 9380609, 8 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/9380609 pet eduation artificial insemination (ai) in dogs the pig site artificial insemination for pigs and swine. ai, fertility, semen, techniques for the pig producer and vet the kennel club artificial insemination (ai) agri tech cattle artificial insemination revival animal artificial insemination (ai) for dogs animal benefits of artificial insemination in livestock artificial insemination of the mare the merck veterinary manual artificial insemination in sheep artificial insemination of honeybee queens


Related videos: medical animations: intrauterine insemination (iui) artificial insemination. artificial insemination vs intrauterine insemination alta genetics artificial insemination instructional video 3d animation of how iui works


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: the atlantic the first artificial insemination was an ethical nightmare times of india more single women now prefer artificial insemination daily mail how artificial insemination has led to thanksgiving turkeys nearly doubling in weight since 1960

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