Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020


Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. This damage is typically caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma, however these are not the only possible causes. To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive aphasia). The four communication modalities are auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing, and functional communication.

The difficulties of people with aphasia can range from occasional trouble finding words to losing the ability to speak, read, or write; intelligence, however, is unaffected. Expressive language and receptive language can both be affected as well. Aphasia also affects visual language such as sign language. In contrast, the use of formulaic expressions in everyday communication is often preserved. One prevalent deficit in the aphasias is anomia, which is a deficit in word finding ability.

The term "aphasia" implies that one or more communication modalities have been damaged and are therefore functioning incorrectly. Aphasia does not refer to damage to the brain that results in motor or sensory deficits, as it is not related to speech (which is the verbal aspect of communicating) but rather the individual's language. An individual's "language" is the socially shared set of rules as well as the thought processes that go behind verbalized speech. It is not a result of a more peripheral motor or sensory difficulty, such as paralysis affecting the speech muscles or a general hearing impairment.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.aphasia.org/aphasia-definitions/ aphasia

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/aphasia/ american speech hearing association aphasia

http://www.webmd.com/brain/aphasia-causes-symptoms-types-treatments#1 web md an overview of aphasia

http://www.strokeassociation.org/strokeorg/lifeafterstroke/regainingindependence/communicationchallenges/types-of-aphasia_ucm_310096_article.jsp# stroke association types of aphasia

https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/aphasia national institute on deafness and other communication disorders aphasia

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/aphasia/basics/definition/con-20027061 mayo clinic aphasia

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/aphasia/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk aphasia

http://brainfoundation.org.au/disorders/aphasia brain foundation aphasia

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/what-is-aphasia cleveland clinic what is aphasia?

http://www.healthline.com/symptom/aphasia health line what causes aphasia? 15 possible conditions

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/function-and-dysfunction-of-the-cerebral-lobes/aphasia merck manuals (professional version) aphasia

Advanced information:

https://medlineplus.gov/aphasia.html medline plus aphasia

http://www.medicinenet.com/aphasia/article.htm medicine net.com aphasia

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1135944-overview medscape aphasia

http://patient.info/health/aphasia-dysphasia patient aphasia (dysphasia)

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/217487.php medical news today what is aphasia? what causes aphasia?


http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00785/full original research article front. hum. neurosci., 14 october 2014 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00785 long-term effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation in chronic post-stroke aphasia: a pilot study by lucilla vestito, sara rosellini, massimo mantero and fabio bandini

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00435/full original research article front. psychol., 28 april 2015 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00435 audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with broca's aphasia by tobias s. andersen and randi starrfelt

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1980-57642015000300279&lng=en&tlng=en dement. neuropsychol. vol.9 no.3 são paulo july/sept. 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-57642015dn93000011 original articles analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects bygabriela silveira , letícia lessa mansur.

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00269/full original research article front. hum. neurosci., 14 june 2013 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00269 tdcs stimulation segregates words in the brain: evidence from aphasia by valentina fiori et al.,

kshirsagar vy, ahmed m, colaco sm. motor aphasia: a rare complication of scorpion sting. j pediatr neurosci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 dec 18];7:231-3. available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2012/7/3/231/106489

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0004-282x2014000300197&lng=en&tlng=en arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.72 no.3 são paulo mar. 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282x20130250 articles ability of aphasic individuals to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks by gabriela de luccia , karin zazo ortiz

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/3406038/ arpita lakhotia, alok sachdeva, supriya mahajan, and nancy bass, “aphasic dystextia as presenting feature of ischemic stroke in a pediatric patient,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2016, article id 3406038, 3 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3406038

http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-24 rotterdam aphasia therapy study (rats) – 3: “the efficacy of intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy in the acute stage of aphasia”; design of a randomised controlled trial by femke nouwens et al.,

patidar y, gupta m, khwaja ga, chowdhury d, batra a, dasgupta a. a case of crossed aphasia with apraxia of speech. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 dec 18];16:428-31. available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2013/16/3/428/116929

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1980-57642014000300207&lng=en&tlng=en dement. neuropsychol. vol.8 no.3 são paulo sept. 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1980-57642014dn83000003 views & reviews transcranial brain stimulation (tms and tdcs) for post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation: controversies by lucia iracema zanotto de mendonça

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4103829&blobtype=pdf ren c-l, zhang g-f, xia n, jin c-h, zhang x-h, et al. (2014) effect of low-frequency rtms on aphasia in stroke patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. plos one 9(7): e102557. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102557

john aa, javali m, mahale r, mehta a, acharya p t, srinivasa r. clinical impression and western aphasia battery classification of aphasia in acute ischemic stroke: is there a discrepancy? j neurosci rural pract [serial online] 2017 [cited 2016 dec 18];8:74-8. available from: http://www.ruralneuropractice.com/text.asp?2017/8/1/74/193531

Other helpful resources(support groups):


http://www.aphasiaproject.org/ triangle aphasia project

http://aphasiaireland.ie/ aphasia ireland

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1hfqw6ayrek aphasia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzsifdk-rho aphasia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbqshvm4qra language and the brain: aphasia and split-brain patients | mcat | khan academy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpf08cohaf4 medicine neurology topic 10 aphasia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szcerbiek6a psa broca's aphasia & wernicke's aphasia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kruqnxqyj0g stroke and aphasia

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