anthrax
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Anthrax

Anthrax

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Anthrax

Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin, inhalation, intestinal, and injection. Symptoms begin between one day and two months after contracting the infection. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. The inhalation form presents with fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The intestinal form presents with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. The injection form presents with fever and an abscess at the site of drug injection.

Anthrax is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria, which are often from infectious animal products. Contact is by breathing, eating, or through an area of broken skin. It does not typically spread directly between people. Risk factors include people who work with animals or animal products, travelers, postal workers, and military personnel. Diagnosis can be confirmed based on finding antibodies or the toxin in the blood or by culture of a sample from the infected site.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/ cdc basic information anthrax

http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/anthrax.html kids health anthrax

http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/tc/anthrax-topic-overview web md anthrax - topic overview

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anthrax/basics/definition/con-20022705 mayo clinic anthrax

http://www.healthline.com/health/anthrax healthline anthrax

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/conditions/anthrax/ lab tests online anthrax

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs_devices_supplements/hic_what_is_anthrax cleveland clinic anthrax

http://www.livescience.com/37755-what-is-anthrax-bioterrorism.html live science what is anthrax?

http://www.skinsight.com/atlas/anthrax.htm skin sight anthrax

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/212127-overview medscape anthrax

http://www.medicinenet.com/anthrax/article.htm medicine net anthrax

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anthrax/article_em.htm emedicine health anthrax

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/gram-positive-bacilli/anthrax merck manuals(professional version) anthrax

http://patient.info/doctor/anthrax patient anthrax

http://www.dermnetnz.org/bacterial/anthrax.html dermnet nz anthrax

https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_6jamrog.pdf modeling responses to anthrax and smallpox attacks by diane c. jamrog, michael p. shatz, and cassandra smith

http://fas.org/nuke/intro/bw/whoemczdi986.htm guidelines for the surveillance and control of anthrax in humans and animals world health organization emerging and other communicable diseases, surveillance and control

 

Research:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0036-46652005000100005 rev. inst. med. trop. s. paulo vol.47 no.1 são paulo jan./feb. 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0036-46652005000100005 microbiology cutaneous anthrax in lima, peru: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication by ciro maguiña et al.,

http://peh-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1747-5341-2-20 trotter g: the ethics of coercion in mass casualty medicinebaltimore, md, the johns hopkins university press; 2007. 154 pages, isbn-13 978-0-8018-8551-8 by sonal singh philosophy, ethics, and humanities in medicine20072:20 doi: 10.1186/1747-5341-2-20

http://enterpathog.com/?page=article&article_id=28979 isolation, specification, molecular biology assessment and vaccine development of clostridium in iran: a review by reza pilehchian langroudi international journal of enteric pathogens. 2015 november; 3(4): e28979 , doi:10.17795/ijep28979

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3144883&blobtype=pdf : peiso oo, bronsvoort bmdc, handel ig, volkova vv (2011) a review of exotic animal disease in great britain and in scotland specifically between 1938 and 2007. plos one 6(7): e22066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022066

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00076/full review article front. cell. infect. microbiol., 01 june 2012 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00076 cellular and physiological effects of anthrax exotoxin and its relevance to disease by david e. lowe and ian j. glomski

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2011.00077/full review article front. immunol., 15 december 2011 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2011.00077 exploiting human memory b cell heterogeneity for improved vaccine efficacy by noel t. pauli et al.,

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01122/full review article front. microbiol., 09 october 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01122 crossing of the epithelial barriers by bacillus anthracis: the known and the unknown by pierre l. goossens et al.,

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3744436&blobtype=pdf : toth dja, gundlapalli av, schell wa, bulmahn k, walton te, et al. (2013) quantitative models of the dose-response and time course of inhalational anthrax in humans. plos pathog 9(8): e1003555. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003555

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01009/full review article front. microbiol., 24 september 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01009 anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions by e. diane williamson et al.,

http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2fjournal.ppat.1000792 endocytosis of the anthrax toxin is mediated by clathrin, actin and unconventional adaptors by laurence abrami et al,http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000792

http://iai.asm.org/content/75/11/5425.full human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against bacillus anthracisinfection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthraxby mark t. albrecht et al., doi:10.1128/iai.00261-07infect. immun. november 2007vol. 75 no. 11 5425-5433

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/8/1148.full novel approaches to the treatment of systemic anthrax by andrew w. artenstein and steven m. opal clin infect dis. (2012) 54 (8):1148-1161.doi: 10.1093/cid/cis017

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/133/5/e1411 pediatrics may 2014, volume 133 / issue 5 from the american academy of pediatrics clinical report pediatric anthrax clinical management by john s. bradley, georgina peacock, steven e. krug, william a. bower, amanda c. cohn, dana meaney-delman,andrew t. pavia, aap committee on infectious diseases and disaster preparedness advisory council

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/horse/conditions/endocrine/c_hr_anthrax pet md anthrax in horses

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vfi6bhqrbja anthrax disease! information, treatment & photos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7lrgt098lxc anthrax

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9uim2oozx88 anthrax - causes, symptoms, treatments & more…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1mlakcyscm mechanism of anthrax toxins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ijgmtudx7c anthrax and bacillus anthracis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnrglkjarly anthrax disease basic information 2002 usepa

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/28/health/anthrax-thawed-reindeer-siberia/cnn russian officials blame thawed reindeer carcass in anthrax outbreak

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2016/07/28/anthrax-sickens-13-in-western-siberia-and-a-thawed-out-reindeer-corpse-may-be-to-blame/ washington post anthrax sickens 13 in western siberia, and a thawed-out reindeer corpse may be to blame

https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/1525256/russian-biological-warfare-troops-rushed-to-arctic-after-outbreak-of-lethal-anthrax-hospitalises-40/ the sun 'dangerous infection' russian biological warfare troops rushed to arctic after outbreak of lethal anthrax hospitalises 40

http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/heat-wave-sparks-anthrax-outbreak-russia-s-yamalo-nenets-area-n617716 nbc news heat wave sparks anthrax outbreak in russia's yamalo-nenets area

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-33000959 bbc news us anthrax scare widens to 51 labs in 17 states

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/govt-confirms-anthrax-outbreak-in-one-village/articleshow/51917029.cmstimes of india govt confirms anthrax outbreak in one village

http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/10-animals-dead-as-anthrax-returns-to-maharashtra/ indian express 10 animals dead as anthrax returns to maharashtra

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