Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin, inhalation, intestinal, and injection. Symptoms begin between one day and two months after contracting the infection. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. The inhalation form presents with fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The intestinal form presents with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. The injection form presents with fever and an abscess at the site of drug injection.

Anthrax is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria, which are often from infectious animal products. Contact is by breathing, eating, or through an area of broken skin. It does not typically spread directly between people. Risk factors include people who work with animals or animal products, travelers, postal workers, and military personnel. Diagnosis can be confirmed based on finding antibodies or the toxin in the blood or by culture of a sample from the infected site.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: cdc basic information anthrax kids health anthrax web md anthrax - topic overview mayo clinic anthrax healthline anthrax lab tests online anthrax cleveland clinic anthrax live science what is anthrax? skin sight anthrax


Advanced information: medscape anthrax medicine net anthrax emedicine health anthrax merck manuals(professional version) anthrax patient anthrax dermnet nz anthrax modeling responses to anthrax and smallpox attacks by diane c. jamrog, michael p. shatz, and cassandra smith guidelines for the surveillance and control of anthrax in humans and animals world health organization emerging and other communicable diseases, surveillance and control


Research: rev. inst. med. trop. s. paulo vol.47 no.1 são paulo jan./feb. 2005 microbiology cutaneous anthrax in lima, peru: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication by ciro maguiña et al., trotter g: the ethics of coercion in mass casualty medicinebaltimore, md, the johns hopkins university press; 2007. 154 pages, isbn-13 978-0-8018-8551-8 by sonal singh philosophy, ethics, and humanities in medicine20072:20 doi: 10.1186/1747-5341-2-20 isolation, specification, molecular biology assessment and vaccine development of clostridium in iran: a review by reza pilehchian langroudi international journal of enteric pathogens. 2015 november; 3(4): e28979 , doi:10.17795/ijep28979 : peiso oo, bronsvoort bmdc, handel ig, volkova vv (2011) a review of exotic animal disease in great britain and in scotland specifically between 1938 and 2007. plos one 6(7): e22066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022066 review article front. cell. infect. microbiol., 01 june 2012 | cellular and physiological effects of anthrax exotoxin and its relevance to disease by david e. lowe and ian j. glomski review article front. immunol., 15 december 2011 | exploiting human memory b cell heterogeneity for improved vaccine efficacy by noel t. pauli et al., review article front. microbiol., 09 october 2015 | crossing of the epithelial barriers by bacillus anthracis: the known and the unknown by pierre l. goossens et al., : toth dja, gundlapalli av, schell wa, bulmahn k, walton te, et al. (2013) quantitative models of the dose-response and time course of inhalational anthrax in humans. plos pathog 9(8): e1003555. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003555 review article front. microbiol., 24 september 2015 | anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions by e. diane williamson et al., endocytosis of the anthrax toxin is mediated by clathrin, actin and unconventional adaptors by laurence abrami et al, human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against bacillus anthracisinfection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthraxby mark t. albrecht et al., doi:10.1128/iai.00261-07infect. immun. november 2007vol. 75 no. 11 5425-5433 novel approaches to the treatment of systemic anthrax by andrew w. artenstein and steven m. opal clin infect dis. (2012) 54 (8):1148-1161.doi: 10.1093/cid/cis017 pediatrics may 2014, volume 133 / issue 5 from the american academy of pediatrics clinical report pediatric anthrax clinical management by john s. bradley, georgina peacock, steven e. krug, william a. bower, amanda c. cohn, dana meaney-delman,andrew t. pavia, aap committee on infectious diseases and disaster preparedness advisory council


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: russian officials blame thawed reindeer carcass in anthrax outbreak washington post anthrax sickens 13 in western siberia, and a thawed-out reindeer corpse may be to blame the sun 'dangerous infection' russian biological warfare troops rushed to arctic after outbreak of lethal anthrax hospitalises 40 nbc news heat wave sparks anthrax outbreak in russia's yamalo-nenets area bbc news us anthrax scare widens to 51 labs in 17 states of india govt confirms anthrax outbreak in one village indian express 10 animals dead as anthrax returns to maharashtra

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