Albinism in humans (from the Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. It is the opposite of melanism. Unlike humans, other animals have multiple pigments and for these, albinism is considered to be a hereditary condition characterised by the absence of melanin in particular, in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, feathers or cuticle.
Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. While an organism with complete absence of melanin is called an albino (UK /æl'bi?no?/,or US /æl'ba?no?/)an organism with only a diminished amount of melanin is described as leucistic or albinoid.
Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.
The following websites are some of the best online resources that provide more information about Albinism. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links.
http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/afreen%20mahmodd.pdf u. narayan reddy, narsing rao, swathi chacham, afreen, jakkampudi naga sravani. “a rare case of griscelli’s syndrome with review of literature”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2014; vol. 3, issue 25,june 23; page: 6874-6877, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2014/2831
ortiz-basso t, vigo r, iacouzzi s, prémoli j. delleman (oculocerebrocutaneous) syndrome: case report. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jul 29];62:741-3. available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?2014/62/6/741/136277
nambiar s, ramasubramanian s, swaminathan m. brown's syndrome with ocular albinism: case report of a rare presentation and literature review. oman j ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 29];8:117-9. available from: http://www.ojoonline.org/text.asp?2015/8/2/117/159264
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/905472/ balu kamaraj and rituraj purohit, “mutational analysis of oculocutaneous albinism: a compact review,”biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 905472, 10 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/905472