Last Reviewed : 12/23/2020

Albinism in humans (from the Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. It is the opposite of melanism. Unlike humans, other animals have multiple pigments and for these, albinism is considered to be a hereditary condition characterised by the absence of melanin in particular, in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, feathers or cuticle.

Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. While an organism with complete absence of melanin is called an albino (UK /æl'bi?no?/,or US /æl'ba?no?/)an organism with only a diminished amount of melanin is described as leucistic or albinoid.

Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.

The following websites are some of the best online resources that provide more information about Albinism. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links.



Basic Information: health line albinism medline plus albinism mayo clinic albinism nhs uk albinism american association of pediatric ophthlmology and strabismus albinism kids health albinism vision australia albinism merck manuals(professional version) albinism about kids health albinism and genetics web md oculocutaneous albinism american association of ophthalmology what is albinism?



Advanced Information: medical news today albinism: symptoms, causes and diagnosis genetics home reference albinism medscape albinism medscape dermatologic manifestations of albinism dermnet nz albinism albinism patient albinism national organisation for rare diseases oculo cutaneous albinism



Research: u. narayan reddy, narsing rao, swathi chacham, afreen, jakkampudi naga sravani. “a rare case of griscelli’s syndrome with review of literature”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2014; vol. 3, issue 25,june 23; page: 6874-6877, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2014/2831

ortiz-basso t, vigo r, iacouzzi s, prémoli j. delleman (oculocerebrocutaneous) syndrome: case report. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jul 29];62:741-3. available from: skin cancers among albinos at a university teaching hospital in northwestern tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases by joseph b mabula et al., bmc dermatology201212:5 doi: 10.1186/1471-5945-12-5 troy a, appel s. low vision management for infantile nystagmus: a case study. optom vis perf 2014;3(1):50-56. complicated crohn's-like colitis, associated with hermansky-pudlak syndrome, treated with infliximab: a case report and brief review of the literature by george kouklakis et al., journal of medical case reports20071:176 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-1-176

nambiar s, ramasubramanian s, swaminathan m. brown's syndrome with ocular albinism: case report of a rare presentation and literature review. oman j ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 29];8:117-9. available from: balu kamaraj and rituraj purohit, “mutational analysis of oculocutaneous albinism: a compact review,”biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 905472, 10 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/905472 albinism in africa as a public health issue by esther s honget al., bmc public health20066:212 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-212 skin cancers in albinos in a teaching hospital in eastern nigeria - presentation and challenges of care by kingsley o opara and bernard c jiburum world journal of surgical oncology20108:73 doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-73 albinism in africa as a public health issue by esther s hong bmc public health20066:212 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-212



Other Helpful Resources(support groups): national organization for albinism and hypopigmentation world albinism alliance tanzania albinism society (tas)



Related Videos: what is albinism? genetic disorder - albinism albinism in nepal by snap productions difference between albinism and vitiligo albinism symptoms and treatments the sunflower: ips jitendramani tripathi | on 2nd world albinism awareness day | 13 june 2016





Presentations/Quiz/Newspaper articles: aljazeera living with albinism in south africa the scientific american what causes albinism? the guardian albinism in tanzania: slow progress in combatting violence and discrimination cbs news albino people are being hunted for their body parts bbc news living with albinism in the uk bbc news how frozen's elsa helped a little girl with albinism the huffington post photographer fights the stigma of albinism with stunning photo essay daily mail stunning photo series featuring people with albinism puts the spotlight on their beautiful and unique features
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