Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Adrenal insufficiency

Primary hypoadrenalism; Adrenal failure; Addison disease; Addison syndrome; Adrenal insufficiency; Hypoadrenalism.

Addison’s disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is a long term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. symptoms generally come on slowly and may include abdominal pain, weakness, and weight loss. darkening of the skin in certain areas may also occur. under certain circumstances an adrenal crisis may occur with low blood pressure, vomiting, lower back pain, and loss of consciousness. an adrenal crisis can be triggered by stress, such as from an injury, surgery, or infection.

Addison's disease arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that there is not enough of the steroid hormonecortisol and possibly aldosterone. this is most often due to damage by the body's own immune system in the developed world and tuberculosis in the developing world. other causes include certain medications, sepsis, and bleeding into both adrenal glands. secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by not enough acth (produced by the pituitary gland) or crh (produced by the hypothalamus). despite this distinction, adrenal crises can happen in all forms of adrenal insufficiency. addison's disease is generally diagnosed via blood tests, urine tests, and medical imaging.

Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones. this involves taking a corticosteroid such as hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. these medications are usually taken by mouth. lifelong, continuous steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems. a high salt diet may also be useful in some people. if symptoms worsen, an injection of corticosteroid is recommended and people should carry a dose with them. often large amount of intravenous fluids with the sugar dextrose is also required. without treatment an adrenal crisis can result in death.

Addison’s disease affects about 0.9 to 1.4 per 10,000 people in the developed world. it occurs most frequently in females who are middle aged. secondary adrenal insufficiency is more common. long term outcomes with treatment are typically good. it is named after thomas addison, a graduate of the university of edinburgh medical school who first described the condition in 1855. the adjective "addisonian" is used to describe features of the condition, as well as people with addison’s disease.


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Basic information: mayoclinic overview web md understanding addison's disease -- the basics healthline addison's disease patient addison's disease adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease) medline plus addison disease nhs choices addisons disease better health addisons disease msd manual consumer version,addisons disease endocrine web addisons disease family doctor addisons disease - diagnosis national organisation of rare diseases. addisons disease health direct addisons disease clevland clinic addisons disease you & your harmones addisons disease mnt addisons disease university of maryland medical center. addisons disease newyork times addisons disease the adrenal fatigue solutions. addisons disease stanford children hospital addisons disease health link bc addisons disease fortis addisons disease encyclopedia britanica addisons disease,p00397/ john hopkins institute addisons disease encyclopedia addisons disease irish health addisons disease canoe addisons disease


Advanced information: medscape addison disease medicine net addison's disease msd manuals professional version addisons disease orphanet addisons disease guideline/article/471525/ endocrinology advisor addison's disease: new guideline details diagnosis and treatment family practise notebook addisons disease european fedaration of pharmaceutical industry and association, addisons disease american family physician addison disease: early detection and treatment principles addisons disease's-disease/symptoms-of-addison's-disease.html health service executive, addisons disease uptodate patient information: adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease) (beyond the basics) endo bible addisons disease - investigation health grove addisons disease pediatric clerckship addisons disease open anasthesia, addisons disease peri operative treatment addisons disease pediatric endocrine associates addisons disease health24addison's disease


Research: indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s176–s177. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104033pmcid: pmc3603020 sub-clinical addison's disease by manash p. baruah indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s495–s497.doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104143pmcid: pmc3603125 tetany due to hypoparathyroidism as the initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-2: a case report by deep dutta et al associated with addison's disease by lísea wilhelm et al rev. soc. bras. med. trop. vol.46 no.1 uberaba jan./feb. 2013 drug prescription patterns in patients with addison's disease: a swedish population-based cohort study sigridur björnsdottir et al ? the journal of clinical endocrinology & metabolism- vol 98,issue 5 doi: indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s369–s370.doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104096 pmcid: pmc3603080 evolving adrenal insufficiency by ajitesh roy et al annals of african medicine vol. 2, no. 2; 2003: 85 - 87 addison’s disease: a case report c. o. alebiosu and o. odusan;year=2003;volume=57;issue=6;spage=249;epage=251;aulast=kaushik kaushik m l, sharma r c. addison's disease presenting as depression. indian j med sci 2003;57:249-51 auto immune addisons disease by catherine napier et al la presse médicale
volume 41, n° 12p2 pages e626-e635 (décembre 2012) doi : 10.1016/j.lpm.2012.09.010 genetic evaluation of addison's disease in the portuguese water dog by am oberbauer,js bell,jm belanger and tr famula bmc veterinary research20062:15doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-15 of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed addison's disease by m baxter, s gorick and f m swords,norfolk and norwich university hospital nhs foundation trust, norwich, uk endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports, 12 2013, edm130070,10.1530/edm-13-0070.


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Other helpful resources(support groups): addison's disease self help group national adrenal disease foundation the canadian addison society new zealand foundation addisons support advocacy forum


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: addison's disease: causes, signs & management news court calls for 'safety watch' after two young lives taken by undiagnosed addison's diseaseby nicole chettle updated 2 dec 2015, 11:31am addisons disease addisons disease by arielle howard

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