adrenal-insufficiency
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Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Adrenal insufficiency

Primary hypoadrenalism; Adrenal failure; Addison disease; Addison syndrome; Adrenal insufficiency; Hypoadrenalism.

Addison’s disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is a long term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. symptoms generally come on slowly and may include abdominal pain, weakness, and weight loss. darkening of the skin in certain areas may also occur. under certain circumstances an adrenal crisis may occur with low blood pressure, vomiting, lower back pain, and loss of consciousness. an adrenal crisis can be triggered by stress, such as from an injury, surgery, or infection.

Addison's disease arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that there is not enough of the steroid hormonecortisol and possibly aldosterone. this is most often due to damage by the body's own immune system in the developed world and tuberculosis in the developing world. other causes include certain medications, sepsis, and bleeding into both adrenal glands. secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by not enough acth (produced by the pituitary gland) or crh (produced by the hypothalamus). despite this distinction, adrenal crises can happen in all forms of adrenal insufficiency. addison's disease is generally diagnosed via blood tests, urine tests, and medical imaging.

Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones. this involves taking a corticosteroid such as hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. these medications are usually taken by mouth. lifelong, continuous steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems. a high salt diet may also be useful in some people. if symptoms worsen, an injection of corticosteroid is recommended and people should carry a dose with them. often large amount of intravenous fluids with the sugar dextrose is also required. without treatment an adrenal crisis can result in death.

Addison’s disease affects about 0.9 to 1.4 per 10,000 people in the developed world. it occurs most frequently in females who are middle aged. secondary adrenal insufficiency is more common. long term outcomes with treatment are typically good. it is named after thomas addison, a graduate of the university of edinburgh medical school who first described the condition in 1855. the adjective "addisonian" is used to describe features of the condition, as well as people with addison’s disease.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/home/ovc-20155636 mayoclinic overview

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-addisons-disease-basics web md understanding addison's disease -- the basics

http://www.healthline.com/health/addisons-disease healthline addison's disease

http://patient.info/health/addisons-disease-leaflet patient addison's disease

https://pituitary.org/knowledge-base/disorders/adrenal-insuffieciency-addison-s-disease pitutary.org adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease)

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000378.htm medline plus addison disease

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/addisons-disease/pages/introduction.aspx nhs choices addisons disease

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/addisons-disease better health addisons disease

http://www.msdmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/adrenal-gland-disorders/addison-disease msd manual consumer version,addisons disease

http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/addisons-disease/addison-disease-adrenal-insufficiency-overview endocrine web addisons disease

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/diagnosis-tests.html family doctor addisons disease - diagnosis

http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/addisons-disease/ national organisation of rare diseases. addisons disease

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/addisons-disease health direct addisons disease

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic-addisons-disease clevland clinic addisons disease

http://www.yourhormones.info/endocrine_conditions/addisons_disease.aspx you & your harmones addisons disease

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/186235.php mnt addisons disease

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/addisons-disease university of maryland medical center. addisons disease

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/addisons-disease/overview.html newyork times addisons disease

http://adrenalfatiguesolution.com/addisons-disease/ the adrenal fatigue solutions. addisons disease

http://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=underactive-adrenal-glandsaddisons-disease-in-children-90-p01979 stanford children hospital addisons disease

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw65865 health link bc addisons disease

http://www.fortishealthcare.com/india/diseases/addison-s-disease-130/causes fortis addisons disease

http://www.britannica.com/science/addison-disease encyclopedia britanica addisons disease

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/endocrinology/underactive_adrenal_glandsaddisons_disease_85,p00397/ john hopkins institute addisons disease

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/addisons_disease.aspx encyclopedia addisons disease

http://www.irishhealth.com/article.html?con=491 irish health addisons disease

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/addisons-disease canoe addisons disease

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-overview#showall medscape addison disease

http://www.medicinenet.com/addison_disease/article.htm medicine net addison's disease

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/adrenal-disorders/addison-disease msd manuals professional version addisons disease

http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/oc_exp.php?lng=gb&expert=85138 orphanet addisons disease

http://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/adrenal/addisons-disease-primary-adrenal-insufficiency- guideline/article/471525/ endocrinology advisor addison's disease: new guideline details diagnosis and treatment

http://www.fpnotebook.com/endo/adrenal/adsnsds.htm family practise notebook addisons disease

http://www.efpia.eu/diseases/63/59/addison-39-s-disease european fedaration of pharmaceutical industry and association, addisons disease

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p563.html american family physician addison disease: early detection and treatment principles

http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/encyclopaedia/a/article/addisonsdisease addisons disease

https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/a/addison's-disease/symptoms-of-addison's-disease.html health service executive, addisons disease

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease-beyond-the-basics uptodate patient information: adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease) (beyond the basics)

http://www.endobible.com/condition/addisons-disease/investigation endo bible addisons disease - investigation

http://conditions.healthgrove.com/l/18/addison-s-disease health grove addisons disease

https://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/page/addisons-disease pediatric clerckship addisons disease

https://www.openanesthesia.org/addisons_disease_perioperative_treatment/ open anasthesia, addisons disease peri operative treatment

http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/addison-disease.php addisons disease

http://www.pedendo.com/addisondisease.html pediatric endocrine associates addisons disease

http://www.health24.com/medical/genetics/genes-and-disease/addisons-disease-20130312 health24addison's disease

 

Research:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3603020/ indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s176–s177. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104033pmcid: pmc3603020 sub-clinical addison's disease by manash p. baruah

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3603125/ indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s495–s497.doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104143pmcid: pmc3603125 tetany due to hypoparathyroidism as the initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-2: a case report by deep dutta et al

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0037-86822013000100123&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=enhistoplasmosis associated with addison's disease by lísea wilhelm et al rev. soc. bras. med. trop. vol.46 no.1 uberaba jan./feb. 2013

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682201200722013

http://press.endocrine.org/doi/10.1210/jc.2012-3561?url_ver=z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3arid%3acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed& drug prescription patterns in patients with addison's disease: a swedish population-based cohort study sigridur björnsdottir et al ? the journal of clinical endocrinology & metabolism- vol 98,issue 5 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3561

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3603080/ indian j endocrinol metab. 2012 dec; 16(suppl 2): s369–s370.doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104096 pmcid: pmc3603080 evolving adrenal insufficiency by ajitesh roy et al

http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?am03020 annals of african medicine vol. 2, no. 2; 2003: 85 - 87 addison’s disease: a case report c. o. alebiosu and o. odusan

http://www.indianjmedsci.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5359;year=2003;volume=57;issue=6;spage=249;epage=251;aulast=kaushik kaushik m l, sharma r c. addison's disease presenting as depression. indian j med sci 2003;57:249-51

http://www.em-consulte.com/en/article/774462 auto immune addisons disease by catherine napier et al la presse médicale
volume 41, n° 12p2 pages e626-e635 (décembre 2012) doi : 10.1016/j.lpm.2012.09.010

http://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-6148-2-15 genetic evaluation of addison's disease in the portuguese water dog by am oberbauer,js bell,jm belanger and tr famula bmc veterinary research20062:15doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-15

https://www.edmcasereports.com/articles/endocrinology-diabetes-and-metabolism-case-reports/10.1530/edm-13-0070recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed addison's disease by m baxter, s gorick and f m swords,norfolk and norwich university hospital nhs foundation trust, norwich, uk endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports, 12 2013, edm130070,10.1530/edm-13-0070.

 

Related topics:

https://www.organicfacts.net/home-remedies/addisons-disease.html home remedies for addison’s disease

 

Other articles:

https://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/outreach/pet-health-topics/categories/diseases/addison's-disease washington state university

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/endocrine/c_dg_hypoadrenocorticism addison’s disease in dogs

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2097&aid=520 pet education addisons disease

http://www.veterinarypartner.com/content.plx?a=608 addisons disease

http://www.1800petmeds.com/education/addisons-disease-dog-cat-1.htm addison's disease in dogs and cats

http://www.vcahospitals.com/main/pet-health-information/article/animal-health/addisons-disease-in-dogs-overview/417vca hospitals addisons disease

http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/testing-addisons-disease dvm 360 testing for addisons disease

http://www.vetmedclinic.com/?p=295 veternary medical clinic addisons disease

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/endocrine_system/the_adrenal_glands/hypoadrenocorticism.html merck veternary manuals addisons disease

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.addisons.org.uk/info/addisons/page1.html addison's disease self help group

http://www.nadf.us/adrenal-diseases/addisons-disease/ national adrenal disease foundation

http://www.addisonsociety.ca/index.php/education/what-is-addison-s-disease the canadian addison society

http://www.addisons.org.nz/ new zealand foundation

http://www.addisonssupport.com/ addisons support advocacy forum

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trfgjqqcutw addisons disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1aepfheyqye addison disease - causes, symptoms, treatments & more

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqgiydkd75e addisons disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2hy9n-gfpk addisons disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttriqutam1q addisons disease

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://study.com/academy/practice/quiz-worksheet-characteristics-of-addison-s-disease.html addison's disease: causes, signs & management

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-02/court-calls-for-safety-watch-in-addisons-disease-inquest/6994504 news court calls for 'safety watch' after two young lives taken by undiagnosed addison's diseaseby nicole chettle updated 2 dec 2015, 11:31am

http://www.imperial.edu/admin/media/file_upload/155-files/ns211/addisons.pdf addisons disease

http://www.slideshare.net/ariellehoward/addisons-disease-final-ppt addisons disease by arielle howard

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