Last Reviewed : 12/23/2020


Achalasia is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause a sphincter to remain closed and fail to open when needed. Achalasia simply refers to achalasia of the esophagus. Esophageal achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder involving the smooth muscle layer of the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Sphincter is like a valve that prevents regurgitation of food. Achalasia is characterized by incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, and lack of peristalsis(involuntary movements of the food pipe and intestines) of the esophagus in the absence of other disorders like cancer or fibrosis. The symptoms of Achalasia include difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation, and sometimes chest pain. Diagnosis is reached with esophageal manometry and barium swallow radiographic studies. Various treatments are available, although none cures the condition. Certain medications like Botulinum toxin may be used in some cases, but more permanent relief is brought by esophageal dilatation and surgical cleaving of the muscle (Heller myotomy).


The following websites are some of the best online resources that provide more information about Acalasia. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links.


Basic Information:

Medline Plus Achalasia

Healthline Achalasia

Mayo Clinic Achalasia

NHS UK Achalasia

Web MD Achalasia


Advanced Information:

Medicine Net Achalasia

Medspace Achalasia

Up-to-date Achalsia overview

Patient Achalasia Pro

Patient Achalasia

National Organisation for Rare Diseases Achalasia

Radiopedia Achalasia

Medical News Today What is achalasia? What causes achalasia?

Learning Radiology Achalasia



“Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia: An Analysis,”Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy

Allgrove syndrome: reports of cases and literature review

Familial esophageal achalasia in mother and son

Laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy in cirrhosis with oesophageal varices

Idiopathic esophageal achalasia: a study of etiology and profile of the patients

Implications of genetic variability ofTrypanosoma cruzi for the pathogenesis of Chagas disease

Allgrove's syndrome: Case report and literature review

Candidaesophagitis in achalasia cardia: Case report and review of literature

“Surgical Treatment for Achalasia of the Esophagus: Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy,”

Diagnosis and Management of Achalasia

Idiopathic (primary) achalasia

Achalasia - An Update

Achalasia in the elderly patient: a comparative study


Other Helpful Resources(support groups):

Achalasia Awareness Organisation


Related Videos:

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POEM for Achalasia; PerOral Endoscopic Myotomy

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