1. Study your migraine Note down the factors that trigger migraine after every episode. This helps in keeping a track of the events. For example, the food you ate, the amount of sleep you had or what you were doing before the headache started. By doing this and being away from triggers, help in preventing the episode in the future. Light, sound, stress, menstruation, caffeine and smoking are some of the common triggers.
2. Maintain a sleep schedule Excess or insufficient sleep is a trigger to the episode. Regular enough sleep is always better than sleeping fewer hours on the weekdays and more on the weekends. Sleeping more on the weekends or sleeping in the afternoons may also trigger migraine headaches.
3. Limit the exposure light Light is a common trigger in people having photophobia (fear of light). To prevent the attacks one should aim at avoiding lights, especially the bright one.
4. Maintain a healthy diet Food plays an important role in preventing migraine attacks. Certain food ingredients trigger the attack, such as tyramine and nitrites. Potatoes, eggplant, beer and fried foods contain such products and should be avoided.
a)Prevent hypoglycemia Decreased glucose levels in blood also trigger the attack.
b)Stay hydrated Dehydration is another major trigger.
5.Food allergies can trigger a migraine in susceptible individuals. Prevent such events by avoiding the foods you have allergy to. Wheat, nuts, dairy and some grains are common food allergies. Maintain a food diary to keep a record.
6. Avoid noisy places Sound is a major trigger for the migraine attack, especially the loud and continuous ones.
7. Life style changes You may not realize but some of your daily habits can play an important role in pathogenesis of a migraine. A few changes in your habits might prove helpful in preventing the episodes.
a) Avoid caffeine which is present in your coffee, chocolates and other beverages.
b) Nicotine, present in tobacco is a known trigger, so quit smoking.
c) Alcohol is another major trigger, so to prevent the attack, limit your alcohol intake.
8. Manage your stress Physical or mental stress can cause migraine. Try to avoid stressful situations. Practice different techniques that help in reducing stress. Meditation, yoga or praying can help in relaxation.
9. Supplementation with herbal medication showed relief in some individuals. Vitamins are also helpful and should be added.
10. Make an appointment with your doctor and discuss about your symptoms, triggers and different ways to prevent your headaches. They may also prescribe you medications depending upon severity of the attack.